About GPAT 2020

Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test (GPAT) is the gateway for admission to various Masters in Pharmacy (M. Pharm) programmes. National Testing Agency (NTA) has announced the result of GPAT 2020 in the form of scorecard  for individual candidates on February 4. The merit list of GPAT 2020 has been released in PDF format. The links to download GPAT results has been made available on this page. Candidates who took the test on January 28, 2020, can download their GPAT results using application number, date of birth and security pin. GPAT final answer keys has alos been released by NTA on February 4. As many as 50,975 graduates took the computer based test. Earlier NTA had released GPAT 2020 question papers and candidate response sheet on January 29.  Candidates who will secure the minimum qualifying marks as specified by the authority to qualify GPAT entrance exam.

According to the GPAT 2020 scores obtained, more than 800 institutes will grant admission to 39,890 M.Pharm seats across India. All AICTE approved institutes/ colleges/ universities accept GPAT score.  A national level entrance test, GPAT 2020 was held in computer based mode in English medium only. The exam contained 125 multiple choice questions which had to be answered in 3 hours in one sitting. There is a provision of negative marking as well under which a correct response brings +4 marks and an incorrect response results in -1 mark. 

GPAT 2020 Highlights

Full Exam Name Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test
Short Exam Name GPAT
Conducting Body National Testing Agency
Frequency of Conduct Once a year
Exam Level National Level Exam
Languages English
Mode of Application Online
Application Fee (General) 1600 Rs [Online]
Mode of Exam Online
Mode of Counselling Online / Offline
Participating Colleges 274
Exam Duration 3 Hours

Download all details about GPAT 2020

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GPAT 2020 Important Dates

Stay up-to date with Exam Notification and News

Past Dates and Events

04 Feb, 2020

Result | Mode: Online

30 Jan, 2020 - 02 Feb, 2020

Answer Key - Challenge answer key | Mode: Online

29 Jan, 2020

Question paper and candidate response sheet release - Start Date | Mode: Online

28 Jan, 2020

Exam | Mode: Online

24 Dec, 2019

Admit Card | Mode: Online

01 Nov, 2019 - 10 Dec, 2019

Application - (Extended) | Mode: Online

31 Oct, 2019

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The eligibility criteria for GPAT lays the minimum requisites that a candidate has to fulfill in order to appear for GPAT. Candidates must meet the following eligibility criteria prescribed by the authorities:

Nationality: Must be a citizen of India

Qualifying Examination: Must hold Bachelor’s degree in Pharmacy (4 years after class 12).
Lateral entry candidates can also apply. Apart from this, candidates who are in the final year of B. Pharmacy course are also eligible.

Who is not eligible: B.Tech (Pharmaceutical and fine chemical technology)/ Equivalent Students are not eligible. 

Age Limit: There is no age limit for appearing in GPAT

Applications Open Now
Manipal M.Pharma Admissions 2020
M.Pharma Admissions 2020 OPEN | MAHE #1 Private university in India QS world Ranking

Mode of Application : Online

Mode of Payment : Net Banking | Credit Card | Debit Card | Paytm | BHIM | Other

To fill the GPAT application form candidates have to first register and then enter their details related to academic, personal, communication address, qualifying examination etc. Thereafter, scanned images of photograph and signature are uploaded.

Steps to fill GPAT Application Form

Step 1: Registration

Candidates must enter their personal and contact details, chose a password and then submit them.  A  system generated Application Number displays which must be noted down. This is used to complete the remaining details and steps in the GPAT application form. It is also required for all future correspondence and subsequent logins

Step 2: Complete the GPAT Application Form 

Candidates must login with their GPAT Application Number and Password to fill the remaining details in the application form.

Step 3: Upload Scanned Images of Candidate 

The images as specified below must be uploaded. Both the photograph and signature should be in JPG/JPEG format. The size of scanned photograph should be between 10 kb to 200 kb while that of the signature should be between 4 kb to 30 kb. Photograph should be coloured or black/white (but in clear contrast).

Imp: Facility for correction in images is not provided. So it is advisable to upload the images correctly

Step 4: Pay Examination Fee 

Candidates have to deposit application fees either through online and offline mode. 

  • For online mode: Candidates can use credit/debit card/net banking/PayTm/UPI
  • For Online mode: Payment through cash at any designated SBI bank branches

Payment Details:

  • General/OBC/ EWS: Rs 1600
  • SC/ST/PwD/Female/Transgender: Rs 800

Step 5: Print Confirmation Page

 After successful payment, candidates are able to print the Confirmation Page. This is to be kept safe for future reference. 

In case the Confirmation Page is not generated after payment of fee, candidates may note that the transaction may have been cancelled and the amount is refunded to the candidate's account. In such a case, they may have to make another payment to successfully submit the GPAT application form.

Application Fees

Category Quota Mode Gender Amount
OBC, EWS, General Online Male ₹ 1600
ST, OBC, General, SC, EWS Online Female, Transgender ₹ 800
ST, OBC, General, SC, EWS PWD Online Female, Transgender, Male ₹ 800
ST, SC Online Male ₹ 800

GPAT E-books and Sample Papers

GPAT 2020 Syllabus

Physical chemistry-

Physical chemistry: Unit 01
Composition and physical states of matter
Intermolecular forces and their impact on state of the matter
Various physical properties of matter
Dipole moment
Dielectric constant
Van der waal's equation and critical phenomenon
Liquefaction of gases
Physical chemistry: Unit 02
Colligative properties
Liquid state
Vapor pressure
Ideal and real solutions
Raoult's law
Elevation of boiling point
Depression of freezing point
Osmotic pressure
Determination of molecular weight based on colligative properties
Physical chemistry: Unit 03
First, second and third law of thermodynamics
Thermochemical laws
Isothermic and adiabetic processes
Reversible processes,
Work of expansion
Heat content
Heat capacity
Gibb's and helmoltz equation and chemical potential
Physical chemistry: Unit 04
Chemical equilibria
Physical chemistry: Unit 05
Phase rule
One, two, and three component systems along with their applications
Solid- solid systems
Solid - liquid systems
Liquid-liquid systems
Distillation of binary systems
Azeotropic mixtures
Vacuum and fractional distillation
Physical chemistry: Unit 06
Refractive index
Introuduction of refractive index
Specific refractivity
Molar refractivity
Physical chemistry: Unit 07
Solubility product, common ion effect, pH and buffer solutions
Factors affecting solubility
Solubility curves
Types of solutions
Effect of cosolvancy
Ph and other factors on solubility
Solubility of gases in liquids
Liquids in liquids
Solids in liquids
Critical solution temperature
Law of partitioning and its applications
Solute solvent interactions
Expression of concentration of pharmaceutical solutions and calculations
Mole fraction and percentage expressions
Physical chemistry: Unit 08
Properties of electrolyte solutions
Faraday's law of electrolysis
Electron transport
Electrical cell
Single electrode potential
Concentration cells
Half-cells and half cell potential
Types of half cells
Sign convention,
Nerst equation
Salt bridge
Electromotive series
Standard potential
Standard hydrogen electrode
Measuring the relative voltage of half cells
Calculation of standard potential
Reference and indicator electrodes
Standard oxidation
Reduction potential
Physical chemistry: Unit 09
Ionic equilibrium
Theory of conductivity
Equivalent conductance
Mobility of ions
Specific conductance
Physical chemistry: Unit 10
Order of reactions
Derivation and internal form of rate laws
Molarities of reaction
Derivation of rate constants

Physical pharmacy+

Physical pharmacy: Unit 01
Matter, properties of matter
States of matter
Change in the state of matter
Latent heat and vapor pressure
Critical point
Eutectic mixtures
Relative humidity
Liquid complexes
Liquid crystals
Glasses state
Solid crystalline and amorphous polymorphism
Physical pharmacy: Unit 02
Micromeritics and powder rheology
Particle size and distribution
Average particle size number and weight distribution
Particle number
Method of determining particle size and volume
Optical microscopy
Determining surface areas
Derived properties of powders
Packing arrangement densities
Bulkiness and flow properties
Physical pharmacy: Unit 03
Surface and interfacial phenomenon
Liquid interface
Surface and interfacial tensions
Surface free energy
Measurement of surface and interfacial tension
Spreading coefficient
Adsorption and liquid interfaces
Surface active agents
Hlb classification
Absorption at solid interfaces
Solid gas and solid liquid interfaces
Complex films
Electrical properties of interfaces
Physical pharmacy: Unit 04
Viscosity and rheology
Newtonian systems
Law of flow
Kinematics viscosity
Effect of temperature
Non newtonian systems
Thixotropy in formulations
Determination of viscosity and thixotropy by capillary
Falling ball
Rotational viscometer
Application of theology in pharmacy
Physical pharmacy: Unit 05
Dispersion systems
Colloidal dispersions
Properties of colloids
Protective colloids
Application of colloids in pharmacy
Suspensions and emulsions
Interfacial properties of suspended particles settling in suspension
Theory of sedimentation
Effect of brownian movement
Sedimentation of flocculated particles
Sedimentation parameters
Wetting of particles
Significance of electrical properties in dispersions
Controlled flocculation
Flocculation in structured vehicles
Rheological considerations
Types of emulsions
Theories of emulsions
Physical stability of emulsions
Physical pharmacy: Unit 06
Classification of complexes
Methods of preparations and analysis
Physical pharmacy: Unit 07
Buffer equations and buffer capacity in general
Buffers in pharmaceutical systems
Preparations and stability
Buffered isotonic solutions
Measurements of tonicity calculations and methods of adjusting isotonicity
Physical pharmacy: Unit 08
Miscibility-influence of foreign substances
Three component systems
Dielectric constant and solubility
Solubility of solids in liquids
Ideal and non-ideal solutions
Solvation and association in solutions
Solubility of salts in water
Solubility of slightly soluble and weak electrolyte
Calculating solubility of weak electrolytes as influenced by ph, influence of solvents on the solubility of drugs
Combined effect of ph and solvents
Distribution of solutes between immiscible solvents
Effect of ionic dissociation and molecular association on partition
Preservatives action of weak acids in emulsions
Drug action and distribution co-efficient
Concepts of dissolution and diffusion

Organic chemistry+

Organic chemistry: Unit 01
General principles
A brief review of classification and sources of organic compounds
Sp3, sp2, sp hybridization
Sigma and pi- bonds
Bond lengths
Bond angles and bond energies along with their significance in reactions should be carried out
Overview of bond polarization
Hydrogen bonds
Inductive effects
Resonance, and hyper conjugation be taken
Concept of homolytic and heterolytic bond fission
Acidity and basicity with different theories should be covered briefly
Ease of formation and order of stabilities of electron deficient and electron rich species along with the reasons for the same should be covered
Relationships between energy content, stability, reactivity and their importance in chemical reactions should be covered.
Calculations for determining empirical and molecular formula should be covered
Organic chemistry: Unit 02
Different classes of compounds
Alkanes including cyclic compounds
Alkenes including cyclic compounds
Alkynes with only open chain compounds
Aliphatic hydroxyl compounds
Alkyl halides
Aldehydes and Ketones: oxidation, reduction, oxime and hydrazone formation
Carboxylic acids: formation of esters, acid chlorides and amides, ester hydrolysis
All functional derivatives of carboxylic acids
Organic chemistry: Unit 03
Protection and deprotection of groups
Introduction to protection and deprotection of functional groups
Two examples each for amino, hydroxyl, and carbonyl groups
The significance of these in syntheses should be explained
Organic chemistry: Unit 04
Aromaticity and aromatic chemistry
Concept of aromaticity
Huckel's rule and its use in determining the aromatic / nonaromatic character of a compound
A brief coverage of structure of benzene
Detailed coverage of electophilic and nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions
Reactivity and orientation in these reactions
Reactivity and orientation in mono- and disubstituted benzenes
Benzyne mechanism
Organic chemistry: Unit 05
Different aromatic classes of compounds
Aromatic hydrocarbons.
Phenolic compounds.
Aromatic and aliphatic amines
Diazonium salts.
Aromatic nitro- compounds, aryl halides, and ethers.
Organic chemistry: Unit 06
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Syntheses and reactions with mechanisms of bi and tricyclic fused carbocyclic rings like naphthalene, anthracene, and phenanthrene
Organic chemistry: Unit 07
Carbonyl chemistry
Carbonyl chemistry involving group conversions and their reaction mechanisms along with stereochemistry wherever applicable
Wolf-kishner reduction and huang-minlong modification
Reduction of arylsulfonyl hydrazine / hydrazones to alkanes.
Bamford steven reaction
Dcc oxidation of alcohol
Michael addition / 1,4-addition / conjugate addition
Mannich condensation / reaction.
Robinson annulation.
Stobbe condensation
Darzen's glysidic ester synthesis
Beckmann rearrangement
Baeyer villiger rearrangement
Curtius, wolff, and lossen rearrangements
Willgerodt rearrangement.
Pinacol-pinacolone rearrangement
Methylene transfer reactions
Use of diazomethane and sulphurylides in the same
Mono- and dialkylations in 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds
Formation and use of enol ethers, enol acetates and enamines as protective groups and in regiospecific alkylations
Organic chemistry: Unit 08
Heterocyclic chemistry
Iupac nomenclature of heterocyclic rings [3-10 membered] containing o, s, and n atoms. nomenclature of above rings containing mono-,di-, and multiple [same or different] heteroatoms should also be covered
Nomenclature of 2 and 3 fused rings containing mono-, di-, and multiple heteroatoms [same or different] should also be covered
Syntheses and reactions of three to six membered rings in detail
Syntheses of five and six membered rings containing mono- or any di- heteroatoms [o, s, and n]
Syntheses of quinoline, isoquinoline, benzoxole, benzthiole, and benzazole, benzdiazole, benzoxazole, and benzthiazole.
Organic chemistry: Unit 09
Bridged rings
Bridged ring systems and their nomenclature
Organic chemistry: Unit 10
Kinetic and thermodynamic control
Kinetic and thermodynamic control of sulfonation, enolate anion formation and alkylation of enamine reactions.
Organic chemistry: Unit 11
Chirality and asymmetry with introduction of the same to s, p and n
Definition and classification of different types of isomerisms
Enantiomerism and diastereomerism
Meso compounds and their optical activity
Stereochemistry in acyclic compounds
Newman projection formulae and their significance
Conformational analysis of n- butane
Absolute and relative configuration
Assigning r and s configuration based on cahn ingold and prelog system
Racemic mixture- its definition and resolution
Definitions of terms stereoselective
Enantiomeric excess and distereomeric excess
Stereochemistry in cyclic systems
Conformations of cyclohexane
Cis - trans relationship in cyclohexane
Prediction of stability of different conformations of 1, 2- 1,3- and 1,4- disubstituted cyclohexanes
Effect of multiple substitutions on the stability of cyclohexane conformations
Chair conformations of cis-, and trans-decalins, perhydrophenanthrenes, and a tetracyclic steroidal nucleus
An introduction to atropisomerism
Organic chemistry: Unit 12
Definition and classification
D and l nomenclature in sugars.
Different ways of drawing / representing a sugar molecule [including cyclic structure]
Interconversion of these representations
Anomers and epimers
Reactions of glucose
Chain extension and chain reduction of a sugar.
Organic chemistry: Unit 13
Amino acids and proteins
Amino acids and proteins
Definition and classification
D and l amino acids, natural, essential, and non-essential amino acids
Denaturation, strecker, gabriel phthalamide methods for the preparation of amino acids
Peptide bond and its formation
Two protective groups each, for -nh2 and -cooh functionalities during protein synthesis
Sequencing of a protein by chemical and enzymatic methods
Organic chemistry: Unit 14
Organometallic chemistry
Organometalic chemistry [preparation and few reactions] of cu and boron
Organic chemistry: Unit 15
Pericyclic reactions
Concept of homo and lumo
Drawing of homo and lumo of 1, 3- butadiene, allylic cation, radical and anion, and 1, 3, 5-hexatriene
Meaning of conrotatory and disrotatory
Allowed and disallowed thermal and photochemical reactions
Introduction to sigmatropic, electrocyclic and (4n + 2) cycloaddition reactions
Cope, oxy-cope in claisen rearrangement, diel's-alder and retro diel's alder reaction

Pharmaceutical chemistry+

Pharmaceutical chemistry: Unit 01
Pharmaceutical impurities
Impurities in pharmaceutical substances
Types and effects of impurities
Limit tests for heavy metals like lead, iron, arsenic, mercury and for chloride and sulphate as per indian pharmacopoeia [i. p.].
Pharmaceutical chemistry: Unit 02
Monograph and its importance
Various tests included in monographs as per i. p. a study of the following compounds with respect to their methods of preparation, assay, and pharmaceutical uses
Sodium citrate, calcium carbonate, copper sulphate, light and heavy kaolin, ammonium chloride and ferrous gluconate.
Pharmaceutical chemistry: Unit 03
Stable and radioactive
Mode and rate of decay
Types and measurement of radioactivity
Radiopharmaceuticals and their diagnostic and therapeutic applications in pharmacy and medicine such as 125i, 32p, 51cr, 60co, 59fe, 99tc-m
Radiocontrast media
Use of baso4 in medicine
Pharmaceutical chemistry: Unit 04
Therapeutic classes of drugs
Dentifrices, desensitizing agents, and anticaris agents.
General anesthetics
Local anesthetics.
Antiseptics, disinfectants, sterilants, and astringents
Diagnostic agents.
Coagulants, anticoagulants and plasma expanders
Pharmaceutical chemistry: Unit 05
Drug metabolism
Introduction to drug metabolism based on the functional groups.
Pharmaceutical chemistry: Unit 06
Various classes of therapeutic agents
Drug resistance, wherever applicable, should be covered in respective classes of drugs
Antiamoebic agents
Anthelmintic agents
Antibacterial sulpha drugs
Quinolone antibacterials
Antimycobacterial drugs
Antifungal agents
Antiviral agents including hiv and anti-hiv drugs
Thyroid and anti thyroid drugs
Antiallergic agents
Antiulcer agents and proton pump inhibitors.
Hypoglycemic agents
Pharmaceutical chemistry: Unit 07
Different classes of therapeutic drugs
Drug resistance, wherever applicable, should be covered in respective classes of drugs
Antiepileptic agents
Anti-anxiety drugs
Penicillins, cephalosporins and other beta- lactam antibiotics like imipenam and aztreonam
Beta-lactamase inhibitors such as clavulanic acid and sulbactum
Aminoglycoside antibiotics
Macrolide antibiotics
Polypeptide antibiotics
Anticancer antibiotics
Corticosteroids [gluco- and mineralocorticoids] and anti-inflammatory steroids
Sex steroids
Male and female contraceptive agents
Anabolic steroids
Anticancer agents
Drug resistance, wherever applicable, in respective classes of drugs
Narcotic [centrally acting] analgesics [analgetics].
Morphine and all its structural modifications [peripheral and nuclear]
Narcotic agonists and antagonists [dual and pure]
Non-narcotic analgesics [nsaids]
Difference between narcotic and nonnarcotic agents
Adrenergic drugs
Neurotransmitters and their role
General and specific adrenergic agonists and antagonists [up to alpha-2 and beta-2 only
Cholinergic agents.
Muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic agonists and antagonists [up to m2 and n2].
Neuronal [transmission] blockers
Drugs used in neuromuscular disorders
Drugs used in the treatment of parkinson's disease
Central and peripheral muscle relaxants
Hypertensive, antihypertensive, and antianginal agents
Prostaglandins, prostacyclins, and thromboxanes
Their biochemical role, biosynthesis, and inhibitors
Introduction to quantitative structure activity relationship
Linear free energy relationship
Hammett's equation
Introduction, methodology, advantages and disadvantages / limitations of hansch analysis
Pharmaceutical chemistry: Unit 08
Asymmetric synthesis
Chiral pool
Sources of various naturally available chiral compounds
Eutomers, distomers, eudismic ratio
Enantioselectivity and enantiospecificity
Enantiomeric and diasteriomeric excess
Prochiral molecules
Asymmetric synthesis of captopril and propranolol
Combinatorial chemistry
Introduction and basic terminology
Databases and libraries
Solid phase synthesis technique
Types of supports and linkers, wang, rink, and dihydropyran derivatized linkers
Reactions involving these linkers
Manual parallel and automated parallel synthesis
Houghton's tea bag method, micromanipulation, recursive deconvolution
Mix and split method for the synthesis of tripeptides
Limitations of combinatorial synthesis
Introduction to throughput screening


Pharmaceutics: Unit 01
Pharmacy profession
Pharmacy as a career
Evaluation of pharmacy
Earlier period middle to modern ages.
Pharmaceutics: Unit 02
Introduction to pharmaceuticals
Definition of pharmaceuticals
Importance of pharmaceuticals
Scope of pharmaceutics
History and development of profession of pharmacy and pharmaceutical industry in india
Indian pharma
Industry in global perspective
Pharmaceutics: Unit 03
Introduction to dosage form
Definition of drug
New drug and dosage form
The desirable properties of a dosage form
The need of dosage form
Ideas about available type of dosage forms and new drug delivery system
Pharmaceutics: Unit 04
Route of administration
Route of administration with respect to dosage form design
Physiological consideration for various routes of administration
Pharmaceutics: Unit 05
Scheme of fate of dosage form after its administration
Definition and introduction to concept of absorption
Biotransformation and elimination of drug
Introduction to bioavailability and various equivalences referring plasma time profile of drug
Pharmaceutics: Unit 06
Sources of drug information
Introduction to pharmacopoeia with reference to ip, bp, usp and international pharmacopeia
Study of structure and features fo index in general and notice and compartment of monographs of excipients
Drug and drug product
Drug information system in online database
Patient-consumer information and non- print material
Classification of information
Primary, secondary and tertiary
Nomenclature of drug
Pharmaceutics: Unit 07
Allopathic dosage form
Merits and demerits
Formulation development
Vehicles and excipients with examples for the dosage form
Liquid dosage form
Monophasic liquid dosage form
Aromatic waters
Ent preparations
Pharmaceutics: Unit 08
Crude extract
Tincture and extract
Methods of preparations of dry
Soft and liquid extract
Pharmaceutics: Unit 09
Allergenic extract
Types of allergens
Preparation of extract
Testing and standardization of extracts
Pharmaceutics: Unit 10
Ayurvedic system of medicine
Theory and basic concept
Various branches of treatment in ayurveda
Types of drug formulation in ayurveda and important ayurvedic drugs and their uses
Formulation of asavas
Pharmaceutics: Unit 11
Homeopathic system of medicine
Theory and basic concept
Source of homeopathic medicines and important homeopathic drugs and their uses
Pharmaceutics: Unit 12
Biological products
Absorbable and non-absorbable material types
Sutures and ligatures
Qc tests of materials like catgut and nylon
Pharmaceutics: Unit 13
Introduction to gmp
Qc and qa.
Pharmaceutics: Unit 14
Pharmaceutical plant, location, layout
Plant location and lay out of an industry
Various factors affecting locational aspects of chemical and pharmaceutical plants
Layout of plant building and importance of flow sheet
Difference between scientific process and technological process
Layout of various departments
Product lay out v/s process layout
Pharmaceutics: Unit 15
Dosage form necessities and additives
Coloring agents
Flavoring agents and diluting agents
Emulsifying agents
Suspending agents
Ointment bases
Solvents and others
Pharmaceutics: Unit 16
Advantages and limitations as dosage form
Manufacturing procedure and equipments
Special care and problems in manufacturing powders
Powders of ip
Effervescent granules and salts
Pharmaceutics: Unit 17
Hard gelatin capsules
Shell formulation and manufacturing
Capsule sizes
Cleaning process general formulation contents and evaluation
Soft gelatin capsules
Shell formulation
Formulation contents
Filing of capusles
Sealing and storage
Encapsulation materials
Methods of microencapsulation
Ip formulations
Pharmaceutics: Unit 18
Types of tablets
Ideal requirement of tablets
Granulation methods
General formulation
Compression machines
Different types of tooling’s
Difficulties in tableting
Trouble shooting aspects of capsules
Evaluation of capusles
Sugar coating
Compression coating
Film coating
Problems in tablet coatings and their trouble shooting aspects
Ip formulations
Pharmaceutics: Unit 19
Parenterals and product requiring sterile packaging
Types, advantages and limitations
General formulation
Production procedure
Production facilities
Selected ip injections
Sterile powders
Pharmaceutics: Unit 20
Formulation of deflocculated and flocculated suspension
Manufacturing procedure
Evaluation methods
Ip suspensions
Pharmaceutics: Unit 21
Emulsifying agents
General formulation
Manufacturing procedure
Evaluation methods
Ip emulsions
Pharmaceutics: Unit 22
Ideal requirements
Manufacturing procedure
Evaluation methods
Ip products
Pharmaceutics: Unit 23
General formulation
Manufacturing procedure
Evaluation methods
Ip products
Pharmaceutics: Unit 24
Liquids of solutions, syrups, elixirs, spirits, aromatic water, liquid for external uses
General formulation
Manufacturing procedure
Evaluation methods
Ip products
Pharmaceutics: Unit 25
Pharmaceutical aerosols
General formulation
Manufacturing and packaging methods
Pharmaceutical applications
Impacts of propellants on environment
Pharmaceutics: Unit 26
Ophthalmic preparations
Methods of Preparation
Ip products
Pharmaceutics: Unit 27
Consideration of importance
Physical properties
Physical forms
Particle size
Crystal forms
Bulk control
Solubility product, common ion effect, pH and buffer solutions
Wetting, flow cohesiveness
Organoleptic properties and its effect on final product consideration of chemical properties
Enzymatic decomposition
Formulation additives
Suspending and dispersing agents dyes
Solid excipients and its effect on quality of finished product
Pharmaceutics: Unit 28
Radio pharmaceuticals
Therapeutic uses
Diagnostic uses
Facilities and work area
Preparation of radio pharmaceuticals
Radio pharmaceuticals used in medicines
Pharmaceutics: Unit 29
Stability of formulated products
Drug regulatory aspects
Pharmaceutical products stability
Self life
Pharmaceutics: Unit 30
Kinetic principles and stability testing
Reaction rate and order
Acid base catalysis
De stabilization and accelerated stability testing
Pharmaceutics: Unit 31
Prolonged action pharmaceuticals
Oral products
Drug elimination rate
Types and construction of implants products
Product evaluation
Parenteral products
Absorption and evaluation
Pharmaceutics: Unit 32
Novel drug delivery system
Critical fluid technology
Transdermal drug delivery system
Controlled drug delivery system
Multiple emulsion
Nano particles
Targeted drug delivery system
Inhalation and new products reported
Pharmaceutics: Unit 33
Formulation and preparation of dentifrices
Hair creams
Face powders
Shaving preparations
Skin creams
Hair dyes
Manicure preparations
Pharmaceutics: Unit 34
Packaging materials
Role and features of pharmaceutical packing materials
Metal and paper as pharmaceutical packaging material
General quality control of pharmaceutical packages
Secondary and tertiary packaging materials
Child resistant and pilfer proof packaging
Pharmaceutics: Unit 35
GMP and validation
Concept and need of good manufacturing practice guidelines
Elements of gmp covering controls of area and processes and product
Regulations related to gmp
Introduction of validation process
Types of validation
Brief methodology of process
Equipments and instrument validation
Pharmaceutics: Unit 36
Pilot plant scale up techniques
Organization and layout
Scale up techniques for solid and liquid dosage forms
Technology transfer


Pharmacology: Unit 01
General pharmacology
Introduction to pharmacology
Scope and source of drugs
Dosage form and routes of drug administration
Mechanism of drug action
Classification and drug receptors interaction
Combined effect of drugs
Factors modifying drug action
Mechanism and principle of absorption
Metabolism and excretion of drugs
Principles of basic and clinical pharmacokinetics
Adverse drug reactions
Discovery and development of new drugs
Preclinical and clinical studies
Pharmacology: Unit 02
Pharmacology of peripheral nervous system
Neurohumoral transmission in autonomic and somatic
Ganglionic stimulants and blockers
Neuromuscular blocking agents and skeletal muscle relaxants of peripheral
Local anesthetic agents
Drugs used in myasthenia gravis
Pharmacology: Unit 03
Pharmacology of cardiovascular system
Introduction of hemodynamic and electrophysiology of heart
Anti-hypertensive drugs
Anti-anginal agents
Anti-arrhythmic drugs
Drugs used in congestive heart failure
Anti-hyperlipidemic drugs
Drugs used in the therapy of shock
Anticoagulants and haemostatic agents
Fibrinolytics and antiplatelet drugs
Blood and plasma volume expanders
Pharmacology: Unit 04
Drugs acting on urinary system
Diuretics and anti-diuretics
Pharmacology: Unit 05
Drugs acting on respiratory system
Anti-asthmatic drugs
Mucolytics and nasal decongestants
Anti-tussives and expectorants
Respiratory stimulants
Pharmacology: Unit 06
Pharmacology of central nervous system
Neurohumoral transmission in the c.n.s with special emphasis on pharmacology of various neurotransmitters
General anesthetics
Alcohols and disulfiram
Hypnotics and centrally acting muscle relaxants
Psychopharmacological agents
Antianxiety agents
Anti-manics and hallucinogens
Anti-epileptic drugs
Anti-parkinsonism drugs
Narcotic analgesics
Drug addiction
Drug abuse
Tolerance and dependence
Pharmacology: Unit 07
Pharmacology of endocrine system
Basic concepts in endocrine pharmacology
Hypothalamic and pituitary hormones
Thyroid hormones and antithyroid drugs
Calcitonin and vitamin-d
Oral hypoglycemic agents and glucagon
Acth and corticosteroids
Androgens and anabolic steroids
Progesterone and oral contraceptives
Drugs acting on the uterus
Pharmacology: Unit 08
General principals of chemotherapy
Sulphonamides and co-trimoxazole
Quinolines and fluoroquinolins
Aminoglycosides and miscellaneous antibiotics
Chemotherapy of tuberculosis
Fungal diseases
Viral diseases
Protozoal diseases
Worm infections
Urinary tract infections and sexually transmitted diseases
Chemotherapy of malignancy
Pharmacology: Unit 09
Autacoids and their antagonists
5-ht and their antagonists
Thromboxanes and leukotrienes
Bradykinin and substance p
Anti-inflammatory and anti-gout drugs
Pharmacology: Unit 10
Pharmacology of drug acting on the gastrointestinal tract
Anti-secretary and antiulcer drugs
Laxatives and antidiarrheal drugs
Appetite stimulants and suppressants
Digestants and carminatives
Emetics and antiemetics
Definition of rhythm and cycles
Biological clock and their significance leading to chronotherapy
Pharmacology: Unit 11
Definition of rhythm and cycles
Biological clock and their significance leading to chronotherapy
Pharmacology: Unit 12
Immunostimulants and immunosuppressants
Pharmacology: Unit 13
Chemotherapy of malignant diseases
Basic principal of chemotherapy
Drugs used in cancer chemotherapy
Pharmacology: Unit 14
Peptides and proteins as mediators
General principal of peptide pharmacology biosynthesis and regulation of peptides peptide antagonists
Protein and peptide as drugs
Pharmacology: Unit 15
Nitric oxide
Biosynthesis of nitric oxide and its physiological role
Therapeutic use of nitric oxide and nitric oxide donors
Clinical condition in which nitric oxide may play a part
Pharmacology: Unit 16
Vitamins and minerals
Vitamin deficiency diseases and their management
Role of minerals in health and diseases
Pharmacology: Unit 17
Principles of toxicology
Definition of poison
General principles of treatment of poisoning
Treatment of poisoning due to heavy metals
Opioids and other addict forming drugs
Study of acute
Sub acute and chronic toxicity as per oecd guidelines
Teratogenicity and mutagenicity studies


Pharmacognosy: Unit 01
Introductory pharmacognosy
Historical development
Modern concept and scope of pharmacognosy
Significance of pharmacognosy in various systems of medicine practiced in india
Homeopathic and siddha
Pharmacognosy: Unit 02
Classification of crude drugs
Based on alphabetical
Taxonomical and chemotaxonomic methods
Organized and unorganized drugs
Official and unofficial drugs
Pharmacognosy: Unit 03
Sources of crude drugs
Animals and minerals
Marine products
Plant tissue culture
Pharmacognosy: Unit 04
Factors influencing quality of crude drugs
Exogenous factors
Altitude and soil
Endogenous factors
Polyploidy and hybridization in medicinal plants
Production factors including collection
Storage and transport methods
Study of morphological and histological characters of crude drugs
Ergastic cell inclusions
Anatomical structures of both monocot and dicot stems,
Leaves and roots
Fruits and seeds
Pharmacognosy: Unit 05
Techniques in microscopy
Details of mountants
Clearing agents
Chemomicroscopic in microchemical reagents
Pharmacognosy: Unit 06
Introduction to phytoconstituents
Definition of phytoconstituents
Classification of phytoconstituents
Chemical tests and pharmaceutical importance of
Carbohydrates and their derivatives
Fats and proteins
Lipids and volatile oils
Pharmacognosy: Unit 07
Principles of plant classification
Diagnostic features and medicinal significance of important plants with special reference to
Rhodophyceae (agar, alginic acid, diatoms).
Yeast and penicillium
Pinaceae (turpentine, colophony)
Gnetaceae (ephedra)
Acanthaceae and apiaceae
Male fern
Pharmacognosy: Unit 08
Pharmaceutical aids
Biological sources
Chemical constituents
Adulterants and uses of
Acacia gum
Guar gum
Arachis oil
Castor oil
Sesame oil
Cotton seed oil
Olive oil
Regenerated fibers
Prepared chalk
Pharmacognosy: Unit 09
Animal products
Biological sources
Chemical constituents
Adulterants and uses of
Pharmacognosy: Unit 10
Plant products
Introduction to plant bitters
Cosmeceuticals and photosensitizing agents
Pharmacognosy: Unit 11
Toxic drugs
Study of allergens
Toxic mushrooms
Pharmacognosy: Unit 12
Biological sources
Characters and uses of
Papain bromalain
Hyaluronidase and stryptokinase
Pharmacognosy: Unit 13
Natural pesticides and insecticides
Introduction to herbicides,, ,
Fumigants and rodenticides tobacco
Pyrethrum and neem
Pharmacognosy: Unit 14
Adulteration and evaluation of crude drugs
Different methods of adulteration
Evaluation of drugs by organoleptic
Chemical and biological methods
Deterioration of herbal drugs by insects
Pharmacognosy: Unit 15
Quantitative microscopy
Definition and determination of stomatal index
Stomatal number
Palisade ratio
Vein islet number
Vein termination number
Lycopodium spore method
Micrometers and measurement of microscopic characters
Pharmacognosy: Unit 16
Biogenetic pathways
Formation of primary and secondary metabolites
Study of calvin cycle
Tca cycle
Shikimic acid pathway
embden-mayerhoff pathway
Acetate hypothesis
Isoprenoid pathway
Biosynthesis of carbohydrates
Lipids and volatile oils
Pharmacognosy: Unit 17
Carbohydrates and lipids
Biological sources
Salient morphological features
Chemical constituents
Uses of plantago
Uses of bael
Uses of chalmooogra oil
Uses of neem oil
Uses of shark liver oil
Uses of cod liver oil
Uses of guggul lipids
Pharmacognosy: Unit 18
Biological sources
Chemical constituents
Chemical test and uses of pale catechu
Chemical test and uses of black catechu
Chemical test and uses of nutgalls
Chemical test and uses of terminalia belerica
Chemical test and uses of terminalia chebula
Pharmacognosy: Unit 19
Volatile oils
Chemical test and uses of terminalia arjuna
Biological sources
Chemical constituents
Adulterants and uses of black pepper
Adulterants and uses of turpentine
Adulterants and uses of mentha
Adulterants and uses of coriander
Adulterants and uses of cardamom
Adulterants and uses of cinnamon
Adulterants and uses of cassia
Adulterants and uses of lemon peel
Adulterants and uses of orange peel
Adulterants and uses of lemon grass
Adulterants and uses of citronella
Adulterants and uses of cumin
Adulterants and uses of caraway
Adulterants and uses of dill
Adulterants and uses of spearmint
Adulterants and uses of clove
Adulterants and uses of anise
Adulterants and uses of star anise
Adulterants and uses of fennel
Adulterants and uses of nutmeg
Adulterants and uses of eucalyptus
Adulterants and uses of chenopodium
Adulterants and uses of ajowan
Adulterants and uses of sandal wood
Pharmacognosy: Unit 20
Resinous drugs
Classification, formation and sources of resinious drugs
Chemical constituents
Identification test
Adulterants and uses of benzoin
Adulterants and uses of peru balsam
Adulterants and uses of tolu balsam
Adulterants and uses of colophony
Adulterants and uses of myrrh
Adulterants and uses of asafoetida
Adulterants and uses of jalap
Adulterants and uses of colocynth
Adulterants and uses of ginger
Adulterants and uses of turmeric
Adulterants and uses of capsicum
Adulterants and uses of cannabis
Adulterants and uses of podophyllum
Pharmacognosy: Unit 21
Nature and classification
biological sources
chemical constituents
Adulterants and uses of digitalis
Adulterants and uses of strophanthus
Adulterants and uses of squill
Adulterants and uses of thevetia
Adulterants and uses of oleander
Adulterants and uses of cascara
Adulterants and uses of aloe
Adulterants and uses of rhubarb
adulterants and uses of senna
Adulterants and uses of quassia
Adulterants and uses of dioscorea
Adulterants and uses of quillaia
Adulterants and uses of glycyrrhiza
Adulterants and uses of ginseng
Adulterants and uses of gentian
Adulterants and uses of wild cherry
Adulterants and uses of withania
Adulterants and uses of bitter almond
Biosynthesis of cardiac and anthraquinone glycosides
Pharmacognosy: Unit 22
Nature, classification, biological sources of alkaloids
Chemical constituents
Adulterants and uses of areca nut
Adulterants and uses of belladonna
Adulterants and uses of hyoscymous
Adulterants and uses of stramonium
Adulterants and uses of duboisea
Adulterants and uses of coca
Adulterants and uses of coffee
Adulterants and uses of tea
Adulterants and uses of cinchona
Adulterants and uses of opium
Adulterants and uses of ipecac
Adulterants and uses of nux vomica
Adulterants and uses of ergot
Adulterants and uses of rauwolfia
Adulterants and uses of vinca
Adulterants and uses of kurchi
Adulterants and uses of ephedra
Adulterants and uses of colchicum
Adulterants and uses of vasaca
Adulterants and uses of pilocarpus
Adulterants and uses of aconite
Solanum xanthocarpum
Biosynthesis of tropane
Cinchona and opium alkaloids
Pharmacognosy: Unit 23
Preparation of herbarium sheets and their importance in authentication of plants
Pharmacognosy: Unit 24
Extraction and isolation techniques
General methods used for the extraction
Isolation and identification of alkaloids
Volatile oils and resins
Application of column
Paper and thin layer chromatographic techniques
For the isolation of phytopharmaceuticals
Pharmacognosy: Unit 25
identification and estimation of caffeine
identification and estimation of eugenol
identification and estimation of digoxin
identification and estimation of piperine
identification and estimation of tannic acid
identification and estimation of diosgenin
identification and estimation of hesperidine
identification and estimation of berberine
identification and estimation of calcium sennosides
identification and estimation of rutin
identification and estimation of glycyrrhizin
identification and estimation of menthol
identification and estimation of ephedrine
identification and estimation of quinine
identification and estimation of andrographolides and guggul lipids
Pharmacognosy: Unit 26
Quality control and standardization of herbal drugs
Quality control of herbal drugs as per who
Ayush and pharmacopoeial guidelines extractive values
Ash values
Chromatographic techniques of tlc, hptlc and hplc for determination of chromatographic markers
Determination of heavy metals
Pesticides and microbial load in herbal preparations
Pharmacognosy: Unit 27
Herbal formulations
Principals involved in ayurveda,
Chinese and homeopathic systems of medicines
Preparation of ayurvedic formulations like aristas
Ghrita and bhasmas
Unani formulations like majooms
Determination of alcohol contents in arishtas and asavas
Pharmacognosy: Unit 28
Worldwide trade of crude drugs and volatile oils
Study of drugs having high commercial value and their regulations pertaining to trade
Pharmacognosy: Unit 29
Plant biotechnology
History and scope of plant tissue culture
Growth media
Plant growth regulators
Callus and suspension culture
Hairy root culture
Transgenic plants and their applications
Plant tissue culture as source of secondary metabolites.
Pharmacognosy: Unit 30
Herbal cosmetics
Importance of herbals as shampoos of soapnut
Skin care of aloe, turmeric, lemon peel, vetiver
Conditioners and hair darkeners like amla, henna, hibiscus and tea
Pharmacognosy: Unit 31
Traditional herbal drugs
Common names
Active constituents and uses of traditional and folklore
Pharmacological and clinical uses of punarnava of boerhaviadiffusa
Pharmacological and clinical uses of shankhpushpi (convolvulus microphylla)
Pharmacological and clinical uses of lehsun (allium sativum)
Pharmacological and clinical uses of guggul (commiphora mukul)
Pharmacological and clinical uses of kalmegh (andrographis peniculata)
Pharmacological and clinical uses of tulsi (ocimum sanctum)
Pharmacological and clinical uses of valerian (valerian officinalis)
Pharmacological and clinical uses of artemisia (artemisia annua)
Pharmacological and clinical uses of chirata (swertia chirata)
Pharmacological and clinical uses of ashoka (saraca indica)
Pharmacognosy: Unit 32
Plants based industries and research institutes in India
Knowledge about the herbal products being manufactured by premier herbal industries and thrust area of the institutes involved in plant research
Pharmacognosy: Unit 33
Indian and international patent laws
Proposed amendments as applicable to herbal/natural products and processes
Intellectual property rights with special reference to phytoconstituents

Pharmaceutical analysis+

Pharmaceutical analysis: Unit 01
Importance of quality control in pharmacy
Pharmaceutical analysis: Unit 02
Acid-base titrations
Definitions of acids and bases according to arrhenius and lewis theory
Definition of normality
Definition of molarity
Definition of molality
Definition of equivalent weight
Primary and secondary standards with examples and differences between them
Standardization of strong acids and bases using primary and secondary standards
Preparation of standard solutions of and calculations of equivalent weights of oxalic acid, potassium acid phthalate, calcium chloride dihydrate and sodium carbonate
Calculation of factors involved in standardization of sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid and oxalic acid
Direct, back and differential titrations
Application of direct and back titrations to preparations like boric acid and borax in a mixture
Ammoniated mercury
Milk of magnesia and zinc oxide ointment
Law of mass action
Acid-base equillibria
Ph scale
Ph and hydronium ion concentrations in aqueous systems
Calculations of ph for weak acids and weak bases
Use and applications of ph meter
Hydrolysis of salts
Strengths of acids and bases
Dissociation constant
Theory of acid –base indicators
Neutralization of titration curves
Different types of buffers which includes chemical and biological and their composition
Buffer capacity
Buffered isotonic solutions
Calculations involving preparation of various buffer capacity solutions
Biological and pharmaceutical applications of buffers
Pharmaceutical analysis: Unit 03
Non-aqueous titrations
Acid-base definitions according to lowry-bronsted
Lewis and arrhenius concept
Factors affecting strengths of acids and bases
Intrinsic structure and surrounding environment
Amphiprotic and aprotic solvents
Acid-base equillibria in non- aqueous media
Titrants and indicators used for assay of acidic and basic substances
Preparation of perchloric acid
Formation of onium ion
Assay of 1o, 2o, 3o amines and amine hydrochlorides using perchloric acid and the reactions involved in it
Standardization of sodium ethoxide solution
Assay of phenols and phenobarbitone
General applications of non-aqueous titrations
Pharmaceutical analysis: Unit 04
Oxidation- reduction titrations
Definition of oxidation
Oxidizing and reducing agent
Equivalent weight
Concept of half reactions
Systematic balancing of half reactions with respect to
Oxalic acid-kmno4
Feso4-ceric nitrate and i2-sodium thiosulphate solution titrations
Calculation of equivalent weight of oxalic acid, kmno4, feso4, permangnate and i2 from half reactions
Calculation of factors for titrations mentioned in a, b and c
Redox itrations
Kmno4 as self indicator
It's preparation
Standardization and use in the assay of ferrous gluconate tablets
H2o2 and nano2 solution
Iodimetric and iodometric titrations
Definitions and difference between iodimetry and iodometry
Standardization of iodine solution
Assay of ascorbic acid and sulphur ointment by iodimetry
Assay of copper sulphate and ferric chloride by iodometry
Bromometric titrations
Iodate titrations
Standardization and use of kio3 in the assay of ascorbic acid and ki
Cerimetric titrations
Standardization and use of ceric solutions in the assay of paracetamol tablets
It's advantages over permanganate solutions
Bromine titrations
Standardization and use of bromine solution in the assay of phenol and isoniazide tablets
Potassium dichromate titrations
Standardization and use of potassium dichromate solution in the assay of ferrous ammonium sulphate
Pharmaceutical analysis: Unit 05
Precipitation titrations
Principle of solubility product and sparingly soluble salts
Titrants and indicators used in mohr's, volhard's and fajan's methods
Preparation and standardization of silver nitrate and ammonium thiocyanate solutions
Assay of sodium chloride by mohr's method
Use of nitrobenzene in the assay of halides
Ammonium chloride and thiourea by volhard's method
Calculation of factors in argentimetric titrations
Titration curve method
General applications of precipitation titrations
Pharmaceutical analysis: Unit 06
Complexometric titrations
Difference between double salts and co-ordinate compounds
Definitions of co-ordination number of metal ions
Ligands- uni-, bi-, and multidentate
Chelating and sequestering agents with respective examples
Structure of complexes of platinum with ammonia
Ethylene diamine tetraacetate as a multidentate ligand in complexometry
Co- ordinate compounds of edta with bi-, tri-, and tetravalent metal ions
Stability of complexes and factors affecting it
Use of buffers in edta titrations
Selective analysis of ions based on ph adjustments
Use of masking and demasking agents
Pm or metal ion indicators
Standardization of edta solution
Titration curves
And examples of assays carried out by direct and back titrations and by replacement of one complex by the other
Applications of complexometry in the assays of calcium gluconate
Milk of magnesia
Zinc undecenoate ointment and aluminium hydroxide gel
Assay of naf by indirect titration
Pharmaceutical analysis: Unit 07
Principles of gravimetry
Factors affecting precipitation
Formation and properties of precipitate
Colloidal state
Impurities in precipitate
Conditions of precipitation
Precipitation from homogenous solutions
Drying and ignition of precipitate
Experimental techniques of drying and ignition
Applications of gravimetry in pharmacy
Pharmaceutical analysis: Unit 08
Extraction techniques
Liquid-liquid extraction
Separation of mixtures by extraction
Distribution law
Successive and multiple extraction of craig method
Continuous counter- current extraction
Effect of temperature and ph on extraction
Inert solute
Associate ion pair formation
Emulsion problem in extractions
Applications in pharmacy
Pharmaceutical analysis: Unit 09
Ion selective electrodes
Measurement of potential
Red-ox titration curve
Ph measurement
Relation of ph to potential
Applications in pharmacy
Pharmaceutical analysis: Unit 10
Miscellaneous methods of analysis
Diazotization titrations
Kjeldahl nitrogen estimation
Karl fisher titrations
Liquid gelenicals
Oxygen flask determination of alcohol content in liquid gelenicals
Oxygen flask combustion method
Calibration of instruments
Pharmaceutical analysis: Unit 11
General principles of spectroscopy
Wave-particle duality
Wave properties
Particulate properties
Line and band spectrum
Electromagnetic spectrum
Absorption and emission spectroscopy
Understanding of terms such as absorbance
Molar absorptivity
E 1cm 1%
Effect of solvent and ph on λmax
Pharmaceutical analysis: Unit 12
Ultraviolet-visible spectrometry
Different electronic transitions
Auxochromes and their effects
Bathochromic and hypsochromic shifts in red and blue shifts
Beer-lambert law
Its derivation
Deviations in beer's law
Single and double beam spectrophotometers covering sources of radiations
Different monochromators
Detectors such as barrier cell
Photomultiplier tube
Photodiode array detector
Applications of this technique in qualitative and quantitative estimations giving emphasis on problem solving
Fieser-woodward rules for calculations of theoretical λmax values
Pharmaceutical analysis: Unit 13
Definitions and types of luminescence
Mechanism of fluorescence and phosphorescence
Singlet and triplet states and intersystem crossing
Fluorescence yield and factors affecting it
Quenching of fluorescence and fluorescence quenchers
Structure and fluorescence
Brief discussion of instrumentation
Applications of fluorimetry in pharmacy
Pharmaceutical analysis: Unit 14
Flame photometry and atomic absorption spectrometry
Principle and instrumentation with emphasis on working and importance of different components
Flame absorption and emission profiles
Interferences and their avoidance
Quantitative estimations and applications
Pharmaceutical analysis: Unit 15
Infrared spectrometry
Infrared region in em spectrum
Different stretching and bending vibrations
Components and their working of a dispersive instrument
Fourier transform technique
Ft instruments and their comparison with dispersive instruments
Sample handling techniques
Functional group and finger print regions in the spectrum
Functional groups identification and their use in characterization of compounds
Problems based on identification of functional groups from spectra of unknown compounds
Pharmaceutical analysis: Unit 16
Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry
Principle involved in the technique
Knowledge about fundamental terms involved such as quantized absorption
Flipping of nucleus
Spin number
Magnetic moment
Magnetogyric ratio
Equations relating these terms to frequency of radiation and magnetic field without derivation of the equations
Types of relaxation processes
Low and high resolution instruments
A brief discussion on the low resolution instrumentation of 60 mhz
Quantitative knowledge of relationship between mhz and magnetic field
An introduction to superconductivity magnets
Solvents and reference standards used
Setting up of a nmr scale
Sample preparation
Shielding and deshielding of a proton and it's effect on chemical shifts
Discussion on and importance of equivalent and non equivalent protons of number of signals
Chemical shifts of position of signal and their calculation from the spectrum
Chemical shifts of different h's
Splitting multiplicity of a signal
Coupling constants of j values
Integration of area under the signal
Importance of these terms in identification or confirmation of different functional groups
Significance and contribution of j value in stereochemistry
Prediction of expected theoretical values of chemical shifts and multiplicities for all protons from simple structures containing up to 12-15 carbons
An introduction to ft-technique and its significance in 13c-nmr spectrometry
Pharmaceutical analysis: Unit 17
Mass spectrometry
Low and high resolution instruments
Components and importance of each in brief
Different types of mass spectrometric techniques
Brief knowledge of chemical ionization mass spectrometry
Calculations of hydrogen deficiency index or unsaturation index
Base or parent peak
Molecular ion
M + 1
M + 2 peaks
Calculations of molecular weight based on m +1 and m + 2 peaks
Formation of molecular ion and further fragmentation
Rearrangements in mass spectrometry
Major modes of fragmentations of hydrocarbons
Hydroxyl compounds
Halogen compounds
Carboxylic acids and amines
Introduction is only to recent advances in ms
Pharmaceutical analysis: Unit 18
Principle and instrumentation
Ilkovich equation with no derivation and its importance
Dropping mercury electrode
Saturated calomel electrode
Liquid-liquid junction potential
Polarographic cell
Explanation of origin of s-shaped c-v curve
Applications 27 of this technique
Amperometric titrations
Instrumentation and applications
Pharmaceutical analysis: Unit 19
Nephelometry and turbidimetry
Tyndall effect
Duboscq turbidimeter
Eeel's nephelometer
Pharmaceutical analysis: Unit 20
Rate and plate theory
Van deemter equation and the parameters affecting separation/band broadening
Classification of chromatography
Retention factor
A detailed study of thin layer chromatography
Preparative tlc
Paper chromatography
Column chromatography
Gas chromatography
Qualitative and quantitative applications of the above techniques
An introduction to high performance thin layer chromatography
Comparison of thin layer chromatography and high performance thin layer chromatography
A brief introduction to high pressure / performance liquid chromatography
Pharmaceutical analysis: Unit 21
An introduction to electrophoresis
An introduction to lasers and masers
Statistical treatment to experimental data
Sampling techniques and applications in pharmaceutical industry


Biochemistry: Unit 01
Revision of ultra structure of cell
Functions of various cellular constituents
Applications of biochemical principles to pharmacy
Biochemistry: Unit 02
Types of carbohydrates
Their functions
Digestion and absorption
Aerobic and anaerobic oxidation with energetics
Glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis
Hexose monophosphate shunt
Diseases associated with carbohydrate metabolism
Biochemistry: Unit 03
Different types of proteins
Their functions
Digestion and absorption
Denaturation and its effect on biological activity
Renaturation of proteins
Urea formation
Urea cycle
Creatinine formation
Transamination and deamination
Proteins as enzymes
Biochemistry: Unit 04
Different types of lipids
Their functions
Absorption aand metabolism
Betaoxidation of fatty acids with energetics
Biosynthesis of cholesterol from acetate
Estrogens and bile acids or salts
Ketone bodies
Their formation and biochemical significance
Diseases associated with lipid metabolism
Biochemistry: Unit 05
Structures of biochemical role except b12
Daily requirements and deficiency symptoms
Vitamins as co-factors in biochemical reactions
Biochemistry: Unit 06
Biological oxidations and reductions
Oxidation reduction systems in the body their role
Oxidative phosphorylation and electron transport chain
Cytochromes and inhibitors of the same
Biochemistry: Unit 07
Classification and their various roles
Enzyme co-factors
Enzyme kinetics
Michaelismenton equation along with its transformations
Double reciprocal plot
Factors affecting enzyme action
Enzyme inhibition
Competitive and noncompetitive and kinetics
Biochemistry: Unit 08
Nucleic acids
Different types of nucleic acids and their composition
Purine and pyrimidine bases
Sugars and phosphoric acid
Nucleosides and nucleotides
Formation of nas and their back bone
Different ways of representing dna and rna molecules
Physico-chemical properties of nas
Their stability in acidic and basic solutions
Purification and identification
Buoyant density
Sedimentation coefficient and svedberg constant of nas
De-novo biosynthesis of nas
Dna and the watson-crick model and its features
Dna as the bearer of genetic information
Central dogma of molecular genetics and the processes defined in the same
Replication of dna
Different types of rnas with their special features and functions
Minor or rare bases
Transcription and translation
Different post translational modifications of proteins
Triplet codon and the codon dictionary
An introduction to different types of mutations
Their nature and repair
Biochemistry: Unit 09
Hereditary diseases
Heriditary non polyposis colorectal cancer
Diabetes insipidus


Biotechnology: Unit 01
Plant cell and tissue culture
Structure of plant cell
Genes and chromosomes
Cell and tissue culture
Callus culture
Suspension culture
Batch culture
Concept of somatic hybridization
Somatic embryogenesis
Processes and applications
Isolation and immobilization of enzymes and plant cells and application
Protoplast and cell fusion
Germ plasm conservation
Production of secondary metabolites by plant tissue culture
Gene transfer techniques
Biotechnology: Unit 02
Animal cell culture
Introduction to animal cell culture
Medium used in atc
Use of fcs
Primary culture
Secondary culture
Cell line
Concept and application with technical hurdles
Transgenic animals as source of food
Organs and tissues
Concept of xeno transplant
Biotechnology: Unit 03
Fermentation technology and industrial microbiology
Fermentation as biochemical process
Types of fermentations
Working and construction
Accessory components
Fermentation monitoring and in situ recovery of products
Biotechnology: Unit 04
Recombinant DNA technology
Basic concepts
Role of restriction endonuclease
Dna ligase
Dna polymerase
Reverse transcriptase
Biotechnology: Unit 05
Process and applications
Constructing recombinant dna molecules
Dna clones sources of dna for cloning
Dna vectors
Role of expression vectors
Host cell for recombinant work
Method for screening and selecting transformants
Expression of foreign genes
Uses of recombinant dna
Pcr and applications
Human gene therapy concept and applications
Drug delivery systems in gene therapy
Biotechnology: Unit 06
Biotechnology derived products
Sources and upstream processing
Escherichia coli as a source of recombinant
Therapeutic protein
Additional production systems
Fungal production systems
Transgenic animals
Transgenic plants
Insects cell based systems
Upstream processing
Downstream processing
Product analysis
Protein -based contaminant
Removal of altered form of the protein of interest from the product stream
Determination of protein concentration
Immunological approaches to detection of contaminant
Endotoxin and other pyrogenic contaminants
Pyrogen detection
Dna as contaminant
Microbial and viral contaminant
Viral assays
Miscellaneous contaminants
Validation studies
Production and purification of recombinant proteins like,
Growth hormones
Only examples of recombinant blood products
Biotechnology: Unit 07
Genomic study
Structural and functional genomes
Human genome project
Technologies for proteomics
Protein identification
Dimensional electrophoresis
Applications of dna and protein microarray technology
Pharmaceutical and medical application of proteomic
Biotechnology: Unit 08
Formulation of proteins and peptides
Making small protein particles
Precipitation of proteins from supercritical fluids
Aseptic assembly
Quality control issues
Lyophilization of freeze-drying
Protein compaction
Biotechnology: Unit 09
Introduction to microbiology
Scope and application to pharmacy field
Whittaker's five kingdom concept
Historical development
Biogenesis vs. a biogenesis
Germ theory of fermentation
Germ theory of disease
Contribution of leeuwenhoek
Robert koch
Louis pasteur and ehrlich
Biotechnology: Unit 10
Microscopy and staining technique
Ray diagram
Working and applications of light compound
Dark field
Phase contrast
Fluorescence and electron microscope
Concept of resolving power
Magnification power
Numerical aperture and angular aperture and working distance
Principle application of oil immersion microscopy
Theory of staining
Principle and technique of staining procedure
Acid fast
Biotechnology: Unit 11
Biology of microorganisms
Cultural characteristics
Pure culture techniques
Morphology and fine structure of bacteria
Nutritional requirement and type of culture media
Growth and growth curve of bacteria
Physical condition for growth
Measurement of bacterial growth of counting methods
Reproduction in bacteria
Genetic exchange
Conjugation and transduction
Development of drug resistance by recombination and mutation
Preservation of bacterial culture
Biochemical properties of sugar fermentation and imvic test
Pathogenesis of staphylococcus
Salmonella introductory study of disease causing rickettsia
Importance of actinomycetes in antibiotic production
Biotechnology: Unit 12
Fungi and viruses
Introduction of fungi
General characteristics of fungi
Industrial and medical significance of saccharomyces cerevisae
Penicillium and aspergillus
Candida albicans
Epidermophyton and trichophyta
Introduction of viruses
Structure and general properties
Bacteriophages of lytic and lysogenic cycle
Epidemiological uses of bacteriophages
Human viruses
Cultivation and multiplication virus host cell interaction
Pathogensis of hiv and prions
Types of tumor viruses
Biotechnology: Unit 13
Aseptic technique
Omnipresence of microorganisms
Importance of asepsis
Sources of contamination and methods of prevention
Principle, construction and working of laminar airflow bench
Biotechnology: Unit 14
Sterilization and disinfection
Concept and classification of sterilization
Principle and methods of sterilization
Mechanisms of cell injury
Construction working and applications of moist heat and dry heat sterilizer
Gamma radiation sterilizer
Filtration sterilizer
Indicators of sterilization
Microbial death
Kinetic terms
D value
Z value
Terminology of chemical antimicrobial agents
Chemical classification of different disinfectants
Characteristics of ideal disinfectants
Factors affecting action of disinfectants
Evaluation methods of rw coeff
Kelsey sykes test
Biotechnology: Unit 15
Microbial spoilage
Chick martin test
Types of spoilage
Biotechnology: Unit 16
Immunology and health
Factors affecting spoilage of pharmaceutical products
Host parasite relationship
Normal microbial flora of human body
Infection vs. disease
Pathogenicity vs. virulence
Koch and rivers postulates
Reservoir of infectionsources of infection
Portals of entry
Portals of exit
Vectors of infection
Communicability of disease
Recognized symptoms of microbial disease
Classification of immunity
Xternal defense mechanism of host
Mucus membrane
Chemical secretions
Naturally occurring microbial flora
Internal defense mechanism: inflammation
Natural killer cells
Phagocytic cells
Soluble mediators
Complement lymphokines
Immune response
Specific immunity and immune response
Humoral immunity antibody response
Mediators of humoral immunity
Basic structure of antibody
Antibody classes and functions
Maturation of immune response
Immunologic memory
Specificity and immunogenicity
Natural vs. artificial antigens
Cellular antigens
Thymus independent antigen
Immediate or anaphylaxis
Compliment mediated or cytolytic hypersensitivity
Immune complex or arthrus hypersensitivity
Delayed or cell mediated hypersensitivity
Cellular immunity
Transplantation immunity
Cellular immunity to viruses
Implications of t-cell response
Acquisition of specific immunity
Natural vs. passive acquisition
Practical aspects of immunity
Measurement of humoral immunity (antibodies
Precipitation tests
Agglutination tests
Immune fluorescence
Production of monoclonal antibodies
Measurement of cell mediated immunity
Intradermal tests
Tests for migration
Mixed lymphocyte reaction
Biotechnology: Unit 17
Vaccines and sera
Cell mediated toxicity
Manufacturing of seed lot system and quality control of bacterial vaccines and toxoids of tetanus
Viral vaccine like polio
Salk sabin
Antisera of diphtheria
Antiviral antisera of rabies
Biotechnology: Unit 18
Microbial assay
Preparation of allergenic extracts and diagnostics
General methods of assay of antibiotics
Cup and plate method
Paper disc method
Dilution method
Methods for fungicidal and antiviral compounds
Microbial assay limit tests


Pathophysiology: Unit 01
Basic principles of cell injury and adaptation
Pathogenesis and morphology of cell injury
Abnormalities in lipoproteinemia
Glycogen infiltration and glycogen storage disease
Pathophysiology: Unit 02
Basic mechanisms of inflammation and repair
Pathogeneses of inflammation
Chemical mediators in inflammation
Pathogenesis of chronic inflammation
Repair of wounds in the skin
Factors influencing healing of wounds
Pathophysiology: Unit 03
Hypersensitivity type i, ii, iii, iv
Biological significance of hypersensitivity
Allergy due to food
Icals and drugs
Pathophysiology: Unit 04
Auto-immunity and diseases of immunity
Mechanism of autoimmunity
Classification of autoimmune diseases in man
Transplantation and allograft reactions
Mechanism of rejection of allograft
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
Pathophysiology: Unit 05
Neoplastic diseases
Disturbances of growth of cells
General biology of tumors
Differences between benign and malignant tumors
Classification of tumors
Historical diagnosis of malignancy
Etiology and pathogenesis of cancer
Patterns of spread of cancer
Environmental carcinogenesis
Pathophysiology: Unit 06
Types of shock
Mechanisms of shock
Stages and management of shock
Pathophysiology: Unit 07
Biological effects of radiation
Nuclear radiation
X-ray and other radiations
Pathophysiology: Unit 08
Protein calorie malnutrition, vitamins, obesity. Starvation
Deficiency of vitamins
Study of various syndromes due to obesity and starvation
Pathophysiology: Unit 09
Pathophysiology of common diseases
Depression and mania
Stroke of ischemic and hemorrhage
Myocardial infarction
Diabetes mellitus
Peptic ulcer and inflammatory bowel disease
Cirrhosis and alcoholic liver diseases
Acute and chronic renal failure
Asthma and chronic obstructive airway diseases
Pathophysiology: Unit 10
Infectious diseases
Infective hepatitis
Sexually transmitted diseases
Urinary tract infections
Viral oncogenesis

Biopharmaceutics and pharmacokinetics+

Biopharmaceutics and pharmacokinetics: Unit 01
Fate of drug after drug absorption
Various mechanisms for drug absorption
Drug concentration in blood
Biological factors in drug absorption
Physicochemical factors
Dosage form consideration for gastrointestinal absorption
Drug absorption
Gastrointestinal absorption
Biological considerations
Physicochemical considerations
Role of the dosage form
Compartmental and non-compartmental pharmacokinetics
Biotransformation and drug disposition
Eliminination and variability
Body weight, age, sex and genetic factors
Pharmacokinetic variability diseases
Pharmacokinetic variability
Drug interactions
Individualization and optimization of drug dosing regimens
Biopharmaceutics and pharmacokinetics: Unit 02
Bio-availability and bio-equivalence
Quality parameters of dosage forms
Assay methods and its validation
Chemical properties of drugs and added substances and its effect on preparations and biological availability of dosage forms
Pharmaceutical properties of dosage forms
Dissolution rate
Pharmacological effects of dosage forms
Factors affecting bioavailability
Determination of bioavailability
Significance of bio-equivalence studies
Statistical analysis of bioequivalence studies
Scale up and post approval changes and in vitro dissolution in vivo plasma concentration profile correlation or iv/iv correlation (ivivc)
Multi stage
Bioequivalence studies
Therapeutic equivalence
Titration design for clinical rationales
New drug application
Biopharmaceutics and pharmacokinetics: Unit 03
Bio- pharmaceutical statistics
Post marketing surveillance
Process validation

Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics+

Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 01
General principles
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 02
Preparation and maintenance
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 03
Analysis of observational records in clinical pharmacy
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 04
Clinical trials
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 05
Type and phases of clinical trials
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 06
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 07
Ethical and regulatory issues including good clinical practice in clinical trials
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 08
Therapeutic drug monitoring
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 09
Adverse drug reaction
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 10
Types of ADR
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 11
Mechanism of ADR
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 12
Drug interaction
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 13
Monitoring and reporting of ADR and its significance
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 14
Drug information services
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 15
Drug interactions
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 16
Drug interaction in paediatric and geriatric patients
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 17
Drug treatment during pregnancy
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 18
Lactation and menstruation
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 19
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 20
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 21
Essential drugs and rational drug usage
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 22
Age related drug therapy
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 23
Concept of posology
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 24
Drug therapy for neonates
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 25
Paediatrics and geriatrics
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 26
Drugs used in pregnancy and lactation
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 27
Drug therapy in gastrointestinal
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 28
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 29
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 30
Cardiovascular and respiratory disorders
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 31
Drug therapy for neurological and psychological disorders
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 32
Drug therapy in infections of respiratory system
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 33
Urinary system
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 34
Infective meningitis
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 35
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 36
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 37
Malaria and filaria
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 38
Drug therapy for thyroid and parathyroid disorders
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 39
Diabetes mellitus
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 40
Menstrual cycle disorders
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 41
Menopause and male sexual dysfunction
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 42
Drug therapy for malignant disorders like leukaemia
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 43
Lymphoma and solid tumours
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 44
Drug therapy for rheumatic
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 45
Eye and skin disorders

Anatomy, physiology and health education+

Anatomy, physiology and health education: Unit 01
Cell physiology
Cell junctions
Transport mechanisms
Ion channels
Secondary messengers
Anatomy, physiology and health education: Unit 02
The blood
Composition and functions of blood
Blood groups
Mechanism of clotting
Introduction to disorders of blood
Anatomy, physiology and health education: Unit 03
Gastrointestinal tract
Structure of the gastrointestinal tract
Functions of its different parts including those of liver
Pancreas and gall bladder
Various gastrointestinal structures and their role in the digestion and absorption of food
Anatomy, physiology and health education: Unit 04
Respiratory system
Structure of respiratory organs
Functions of respiration mechanism and regulation of respiration
Respiratory volumes and vital capacity
Anatomy, physiology and health education: Unit 05
Autonomic nervous system
Physiology and functions of the autonomic nervous system
Mechanism of neurohumoral transmission in ans
Anatomy, physiology and health education: Unit 06
Sense organs
Structure and physiology of eye
Taste buds
Anatomy, physiology and health education: Unit 07
Skeletal system
Structure and function of skeleton
Articulation and movement
Disorders of bones and joints
Anatomy, physiology and health education: Unit 08
Central nervous system
Functions of different parts of brain and spinal cord
Neurohumoral transmission in the central nervous system
Reflex action
Specialized functions of the brain
Cranial nerves and their functions
Anatomy, physiology and health education: Unit 09
Urinary system
Various parts structure and functions of the kidney and urinary tract
Physiology of urine formation and acid base balance
Brief introduction to disorders of kidney
Anatomy, physiology and health education: Unit 10
Endocrine glands
Basic anatomy and physiology of pituitary
Adrenal glands and pancreas
Local hormones
Brief introduction to disorders of various endocrine glands
Anatomy, physiology and health education: Unit 11
Reproductive system
Structure and functions of male and female reproductive system
Sex hormones
Physiology of menstrual cycle and various stages of pregnancy and parturition
Anatomy, physiology and health education: Unit 12
Cardio vascular system
Anatomy of heart and blood vessels
Physiology of blood circulation
Cardiac cycle
Conducting system of heart
Heart sound
Blood pressure and its regulation
Anatomy, physiology and health education: Unit 13
Lymphatic system
Formation and circulation of lymph
Spleen and its functions

Pharmaceutical engineering+

Pharmaceutical engineering: Unit 01
Fluid flow
Type of flow
Reynold's number
Concept of boundary layer
Basic equation of fluid flow
Study of valves
Flow meters
Manometers and measurement of flow and pressure including mathematical problems
Pharmaceutical engineering: Unit 02
Heat transfer
Source of heat
Mechanism of heat transfer
The laws of heat transfer
Steam and electricity as heating media
Determination of requirement of amount of steam/electrical energy
Steam pressure
Boiler capacity
Mathematical problems on heat transfer
Steam traps and reducing valve
Pharmaceutical engineering: Unit 03
Basic concept of phase equilibrium
Factors affecting evaporation
Film evaporators
Single effect and multiple effect evaporators
Mathematical problems on evaporation
Pharmaceutical engineering: Unit 04
Rault's law
Phase diagram
Simple steam and flash distillation
Principles of rectification
Mc-cabe thiele method for calculations of number of theoretical plates
Azeotropic and extractive distillation
Mathematical problems on distillation
Pharmaceutical engineering: Unit 05
Moisture content and mechanism of drying
Rate of drying and time of drying calculations
Classifications and types of dryers
Dryers used in pharmaceutical industries and special drying methods like freeze drying and lyophilization
Mathematical problems in drying
Pharmaceutical engineering: Unit 06
Size reduction and size separation
Objectives of size reduction
Factors affecting size reduction
Laws governing in energy and power requirement of a mill
Types of mills including ball mill
Hammer mill
Fluid energy mill
Quadro co-mil
Pharmaceutical engineering: Unit 07
Theory of extraction
Extraction methods
Equipment for various types of extraction process
Pharmaceutical engineering: Unit 08
Theory of mixing
Solid-liquid and liquid-liquid mixing equipment
Pharmaceutical engineering: Unit 09
Characteristics of crystals like purity
Habit, forms
Size and factors affecting them
Solubility curves and calculation curves and calculations of heat balance around s swanson's walker crystallizer
Super saturation theory and its limitations
Nucleation mechanism
Crystal growth
Study of various types of crystallizers
Agitated batch
Swanson’s walker
Single vacuums
Circulating magma and crystal crystallizers
Cracking of crystals and its prevention
Numerical problems on yields
Introduction to polymorphism
Pharmaceutical engineering: Unit 10
Filtration and centrifugation
Theory of filtrations
Filter aids
Filter media
Industrial filters
Including filter press
Rotary filter
Edge filters
Filter leaf and laboratory filtration equipments
Factors affecting filtration
Mathematical problems on filtrations
Optimum cleaning cycle in batch filters
Principles of centrifugation
Industrial centrifugal filters and centrifugal sedimentars
Pharmaceutical engineering: Unit 11
Dehumidification and humidity control
Basic concept and definition
Wet bulb and adiabatic saturation temperatures
Psychometric count and measurement of humidity
Application of humidity measurement in pharmacy
Equipments for humidification and dehumidification operations
Pharmaceutical engineering: Unit 12
Refrigeration and air conditioning
Principles and applications of refrigeration and air conditioning
Pharmaceutical engineering: Unit 13
Material of constructions
General study of composition
Properties and applications of the materials of construction with special reference to stainless steel
Glass as material of constructions
Ferrous metals as material of constructions
Cast iron as as material of constructions
Non-ferrous metals as as material of constructions
Copper and alloys as material of constructions
Aluminum and alloys as material of constructions
Lead as material of constructions
Tin as material of constructions
Silver as material of constructions
Nickel and alloys as material of constructions
Chromium and non metals as material of constructions
Stone as material of constructions
Slate as material of constructions
Brick as material of constructions
Asbestos as material of constructions
Plastics as material of constructions
Rubber as material of constructions
Timber as material of constructions
Concrete as material of constructions
Corrosion and its prevention with reference to commonly used material in pharmaceutical plants
Pharmaceutical engineering: Unit 14
Automated process control systems
Process variable
Flow level and vacuum and their measurement
Elements of automatic process control and introduction to automatic process control
Elements of computer aided manufacturing
Pharmaceutical engineering: Unit 15
Industrial hazards and safety precautions
Mechanical industrial hazards
Chemical industrial hazards
Electrical industrial hazards
Fire industrial hazards
Dust industrial hazards
Noise hazards
Industrial dermatitis
Records of industrial hazards
Safety requirements/equipments

Pharmaceutical management+

Pharmaceutical management: Unit 01
Introduction to management
Types of management
Basic concepts of management
Management process
Function and principles
Levels of Management
Pharmaceutical management art
Science or profession
Social responsibilities of management
Functions of management
Pharmaceutical management: Unit 02
Planning and forecasting
Process and types of planning
Steps in planning process
Planning premises
Advantages and limitations of planning
Management by objective
Objective features
Advantages and limitations
Techniques of forecasting
Pharmaceutical management: Unit 03
Line and staff organization concepts
Pharmaceutical management: Unit 04
Research management
R and d organizations and research categories
Elements needed for an r and d organization
Technology transfer
Pharmaceutical management: Unit 05
Inventory management
Objective and functions of inventory control
Types of inventories
Requirements of effective inventory control
Pharmaceutical management: Unit 06
Nature of communication
Types of communication
Process of communication
Channels and barriers of communication
Limitations of communications
Importance in pharmaceutical industries
Pharmaceutical management: Unit 07
Marketing research
New product selection
Product management
Leadership and motivation
Leadership styles
Theories of leadership
Theories of motivation
Pharmaceutical management: Unit 08
Human resource and development
Hrd methods
Hrd process
Hrd in indian industry
Pharmaceutical management: Unit 09
General agreement on tariff and trade and its impact on pharmaceutical industry
History of gatt
Its impact on pharmaceutical industry
Pharmaceutical market in india
Pharmaceutical management: Unit 10
World trade organization and trade related intellectual property rights
Introduction to wto
Types of intellectual property rights
Industrial property and copyrights indian patent acts
1970 with latest amendment
Types of patents
Pharmaceutical management: Unit 11
Standard institutions and regulatory authorities
Bureau of indian standards
International organization for standardization
United states of food and drug administration
Central drug standard control organization
International conference on harmonization
World health organization

Pharmaceutical jurisprudence+

Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 01
Historical background drug legislation in India
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 02
Code of ethics for pharmacists
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 03
The pharmacy act 1948
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 04
Drugs and cosmetics act 1940
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 05
Rules 1945
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 06
Including new drug applications
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 07
Narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances act and rules there under
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 08
Drugs and magic remedies act 1954
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 09
Medicinal and toilet preparations (excise duties) act 1955, rules 1976
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 10
Medical termination of pregnancy act 1970 and rules 1975
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 11
Prevention of cruelty to animals act 1960
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 12
Drug price control order
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 13
Shops and establishment act
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 14
Factory act
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 15
Consumer protection act
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 16
Indian pharmaceutical industry
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 17
An overview
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 18
Industrial development and regulation act 1951
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 19
Introduction to intellectual property rights and Indian patent act 1970
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 20
An introduction to standard institutions and regulatory authorities such as BIS
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 21
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 22
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 23
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 24
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 25
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 26
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 27
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 28
Minimum wages act 1948
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 29
Prevention of food adulteration act 1954 and rules 1955
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 30

Dispensing and hospital pharmacy+

Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 01
Introduction to laboratory equipment
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 02
Weighing methodology
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 03
Handling of prescriptions
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 04
Labelling instructions for dispensed products
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 05
Preparations based on percolation process
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 06
Preparations based on maceration process
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 07
Study of difference between marketed and dispensed products of different dosage forms
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 08
Posological calculations involved in calculation of dosage for infants, enlarging and reducing formula, displacement value
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 09
Preparations of formulations involving allegation
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 10
Alcohol dilution
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 11
Isotonic solution
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 12
Study of current patent and proprietary products
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 13
Generic products and selected brand products
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 14
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 15
Contra indications
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 16
Adverse drug reactions
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 17
Available dosage forms and packing of antihypertensive drug
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 18
Available dosage forms and packing of anti-amoebic drugs
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 19
Available dosage forms and packing of anti-histaminic drugs
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 20
Available dosage forms and packing of anti-emetic drugs
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 21
Available dosage forms and packing of antacids and ulcer healing drugs
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 22
Available dosage forms and packing of anti-diarrheal and laxatives
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 23
Available dosage forms and packing of respiratory drugs
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 24
Available dosage forms and packing of antibiotics
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 25
Available dosage forms and packing of analgesics and antipyretic drugs
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 26
Compounding and dispensing of following prescriptions
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 27
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 28
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 29
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 30
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 31
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 32
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 33
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 34
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 35
Ointments / paste
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 36
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 37
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 38
Prescription based on physical
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 39
Chemical and therapeutic
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 40
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 41
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 42
Reading and counselling of prescriptions from the clinical practice
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 43
Designing from mock pharmacy
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 44
Layout and structure of retail pharmacy
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 45
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 46
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 47
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 48
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 49
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 50
Recording and counselling of prescription
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 51
Procurement of information for the given drug for drug information services

The National Testing Agency releases exam pattern for GPAT. Candidates appearing for the exam are advised to know the GPAT exam pattern to get an understanding of the medium, type of questions to expect, duration of exam etc.

GPAT Exam Pattern can be checked as follows

  • Mode of examination- Computer-based online test
  • Language- English
  • Duration of examination- 3 hours
  • Type of questions- Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)
  • Total number of questions- 125
  • Marking Scheme- +4 for every correct answer, while -1 for every incorrect response
  • Maximum Marks- 500
  • Exam Time- 2:30 to 5:30

NTA releases the GPAT admit card in online mode on the official website. The admit card of GPAT carries details related to exam, test centre, hall ticket number, the name of the candidate etc. To download GPAT admit card candidates need to log-in using application number and date of birth/password. However,  before downloading the admit card, candidates must check all the details furnished on it. Also, candidates must remember that GPAT admit card is an important document. If a candidate fails to carry it to the examination hall, they are not allowed to appear for the entrance exam.

Steps to download GPAT admit card:

1. Visit the website of NTA GPAT at gpat.nta.nic.in

2. Click on the link to 'download GPAT admit card' 

3. Candidate can download by using the application number and password or date of birth

4. Enter the login credentials and click on submit

5. The GPAT admit card appears on screen for download. 

Documents to be carried along with GPAT admit card

  • One passport size photograph. This should be the same as uploaded for the online application form and is used for pasting on the specific space in the attendance sheet at the GPAT exam centre during the exam.
  • Any one of the photo IDs mentioned below. Candidates must carry the original, valid and non-expired photo IDs: PAN card/ Driving License/ Voter ID/ Passport/ Aadhaar Card (With photograph)/ Ration Card
  • PwD certificate issued by the Competent Authority if applicable

Unable to download the GPAT Admit Card?

Candidates who are unable to download their admit cards must send an email to the official email ID provided by NTA for the cause citing their name, application number and other details.

GPAT 2020 Exam Centers

State City
Gujarat Ahmedabad
Uttar Pradesh Allahabad
Maharashtra Amravati
Navi Mumbai
Tamil Nadu Madurai
Karnataka Mangalore
Delhi New Delhi
Madhya Pradesh Bhopal
Odisha Bhubaneswar
Andhra Pradesh Nellore
Chandigarh Chandigarh
Goa Panaji
Uttarakhand Dehradun
Bihar Patna
Chhattisgarh Raipur
Haryana Gurgaon
Assam Guwahati
Jharkhand Ranchi
Telangana Hyderabad
Himachal Pradesh Shimla
Jammu and Kashmir Srinagar
Rajasthan Jaipur
Kerala Thiruvananthapuram
West Bengal Kolkata
Punjab Amritsar
Tripura Agartala
Andaman and Nicobar Islands Port Blair
Arunachal Pradesh Itanagar
Lakshadweep Kavaratti
Manipur Imphal
Meghalaya Shillong
Mizoram Aizawl
Nagaland Kohima
Puducherry Puducherry

Documents Required at Exam

  • GPAT 2020 admit card
  • Valid photo ID proof
  • Photograph similar to the one uploaded with the application form
  • PwD certificate if applicable

NTA has released GPAT answer key 2020 on January 30 in online mode and PDF format. Candidates have been provided with the facility to challenge the same till February 2, 2020 (upto 5 PM). GPAT Answer Key 2020 contains the correct answers to the questions asked in the entrance exam. Candidates become able to cross-check and then calculate their scores with the help of answer key. They can raise objections to any answer with the payment of requisite fee if they have proof of the same. The amount paid for challenging is refunded if the challenges are correct. It must be noted that the authorities have released GPAT 2020 question paper and candidate response sheet on January 29. This can be accessed using login credentials.

 Follow the steps below to know how to calculate your probable GPAT score:

  • Use the official marking scheme of GPAT to calculate your score. According to the GPAT marking scheme, candidates are rewarded 4 marks for every correct answer while every incorrect response deducts one mark.

  • GPAT score = (4 x Number of correct responses) + (1 x Number of incorrect responses)

How to challenge the GPAT answer key?

  • Candidates must login using their application number and password/ date of birth and pay a sum of Rs 1000 per question through credit/debit card/Net banking,
  • The NTA’s committee will look into the objections and release the final answer key after consideration of the same. The decision on the challenges is final and no further communication is entertained by the authorities.

274 Colleges Accepting Admission
through GPAT

Click here

The National Testing Agency announces GPAT result in online mode on February 4. The result carries details such as candidate’s rank, qualifying status and score. To check the GPAT result, candidates have to enter their email-id and password. Also, after the announcement of the result, the authorities release GPAT merit list and scorecard in online mode. To check the scorecard candidates need to enter their registered e-mail ID and password.  

Steps to check GPAT result:

1. Visit the official website of NTA and go for GPAT 

2. Click on the link 'View GPAT result'

3. Enter the login credentials, i.e. candidate application number and password or date of birth

4. Click on 'Sign in' and then 'View result'

The result page will show the maximum marks, candidate's NTA score and All India Rank (AIR). GPAT result is valid for a period of three years from its declaration. The scorecard is used for admissions at more than 800 institutes offering M.Pharm courses across the country.

GPAT cutoff is taken as the screening process for admission to various Master of Pharmacy (M.Pharmacy) programmes. NTA, i.e. the conducting body determines the cutoff of GPAT which is the minimum qualifying score required for admissions. Various factors like availability of seats, the difficulty level of exam, number of candidates applied for etc are considered while determining the GPAT cutoff.  

GPAT cutoff 2020, 2019

Total candidates
Total number of candidates

GPAT Cutoff Trends








General and OBC







Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe







Physically Handicapped







Mode of Counselling: Online, Offline

NTA does not conduct the counselling for GPAT. Individual participating institutes conduct the counselling based on the GPAT score. Qualified candidates have to register to the institutes for the counselling procedure separately. The counselling schedule is then released by the GPAT participating institutes separately. More than 800 institutes offer admissions to the masters in Pharmacy programmes in the country on the basis of GPAT scores.

Documents required for GPAT Counselling 

  • GPAT Counselling letter (original)

  • GPAT admit card (original)

  • GPAT rank card

  • 10th class marksheet (original)

  • 12th class marksheet (original)

  • Graduation certificate (original/ provisional)

  • Character certificate (original)

  • Category certificate (if applicable)

  • Latest passport size photographs

General Information

Applications Open Now

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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Question: What is GPAT exam conducted for?


The Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test (GPAT) is conducted for M. Pharm admissions across various participating institutes of India.

Question: Which Institutes accept GPAT score?


There are more than 800 participating institutes that accept GPAT score.

Question: Can I take the GPAT test from any computer?


No. A candidate has to take the test on a pre-assigned computer at the test venue as contained in the GPAT admit card.

Question: Can I apply for change of exam centre after release of GPAT admit card?


No, candidates are not allowed to make any changes once the application form is saved.

Question: What is the duration of GPAT 2020?


The GPAT exam was conducted for 3 hours, i.e. 2:30 PM to 5:30 PM on January 28, 2020.

Question: When will NTA release GPAT answer key 2020?


The National Testing Agency (NTA) has released GPAT 2020 answer key on January 30

Questions related to GPAT

Showing 177 out of 177 Questions

what is the fee for non gpat students?

Pompi 9th Apr, 2020

Hello Aspirant!

Almost all the government pharmaceutical institutes provide admission based on GPAT scores. But some private universities may provide you direct admission to M.Pharma. courses without qualifying GPAT in case of vacant seats. Your total fees (for 2 years) will range from 4  to 8 lakhs, depending on the institution. You can get some relaxation in your fees amount by obtaining a good rank in the entrance exam conducted by that particular institution. One good example is Lovely Professional University, Phagwara (which conducts LPUNEST).

Visit the official website of the institute you are interested in for more information. Or kindly mention the college/university name in the comment section.

You can also visit the link below : https://pharmacy.careers360.com/colleges/list-of-mpharma-colleges-in-india

Hope this answer will be helpful to you.


Can anyone tell me how much marks i need to score in GPAT to get admission in BHU (Pharmaceutics) for M Pharmacy or in BIT (Mishra)..?

Deepshikha Student Expert 8th Apr, 2020
National Testing Agency (NTA) has declared the GPAT 2020 cutoff along with the GPAT result by February 4.
GPAT cutoff scores 2020 for General category candidates is 163, while for OBC-NCL, it is 131. GPAT cutoff 2020 scores for EWS is 104, and for SC and ST, it is 103 and 76, respectively.
The exact prediction of cutoff for bhu and bit is not possible because the cutoff changes every year depending upon the difficulty level of the examination,the number of candidates appearing in the examination and the category of candidates etcetra.
Those candidates who will be shortlisted in the merit list will be called to attend the counselling procedure at the participating institutes.
Hope this helps.
Good luck.

Currently I am doing my graduation but my career 360 profile is still showing studying in class 12 how can I change that?

sathwika 2nd Apr, 2020

Hello Aspirant,

As ypur doing your graduation in career 360 which is  one of the top college in India  as you wanted to change it as graduate of career 360 and its showing you 12th standard so pls go to the website of that college list out your problem in there helping box so thatit may help you to change the studying profile of yours  so go to the website and ALL THE BEST for your future and i think my suggestions and knowledge may be helpful to u.


Can I apply in Gpat affiliated colleges for Pg if I dont qualify in GPAT?

sathwika 2nd Apr, 2020

Hello Aspirant,

As you are not qualified for the gpat and you wanted to apply for the colleges you can apply for the colleges but in nri quota were you should pay lot of amount and it is risky too so better attempt the exam once again and try to get scholarships from the government as applying for the affiliated colleges or universities is not possible in all the cases we can prefer this in the less cases so study well and work hard to get good marks in the future examinations ALL THE BEST for your future and i think my suggestions and knowledge may be helpful to u.


Can you upload Solved GPAT question papers of 2018, 2019 & 2020.

chinmayi 30th Mar, 2020


You can get solved papers for GPAT of 2018,18,20 by the given below links :





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