About GPAT 2019

For the admission to M.Pharm programmes offered by various institutes/colleges, Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test (GPAT) is the gateway for it. From 2019, National Testing Agency (NTA) will be conducting GPAT in computer-based mode. Earlier, the national level entrance exam, GPAT was conducted by All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE). GPAT is conducted in a single session for the duration of 3 hours. The scores obtained in GPAT will be accepted by all AICTE approved Universities/Institutions etc. Various scholarships and other financial assistance are given by AICTE for GPAT qualified candidates. GPAT 2019 scores will be accepted by around 800 participating institutes.

Exam level: National Level Exam
Frequency: Once a year
Languages English
Conducting Body: National Testing Agency
Duration 3 Hours

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GPAT 2019 Important Dates

01 Nov, 2018 - 30 Nov, 2018 Application | Mode: Online
01 Nov, 2018 - 30 Nov, 2018 Others - Last date to pay application fee | Mode: Offline
01 Nov, 2018 - 30 Nov, 2018 Others - Last date to pay application fee | Mode: Online
07 Jan, 2019 Admit Card - Available | Mode: Online
28 Jan, 2019 Exam | Mode: Online
08 Feb, 2019 Result | Mode: Online

To appear for GPAT 2019, candidates must meet the following eligibility criteria prescribed by the authorities:

Nationality: Must be a citizen of India

Qualifying Examination: Must hold Bachelor’s degree in Pharmacy (4 years after class 12).
Lateral entry candidates can also apply. Apart from this, candidates who are in the final year of B. Pharmacy course are also eligible.

Who are not eligible: B.Tech (Pharmaceutical and fine chemical technology)/ Equivalent Students are not eligible. 

Age Limit: There is no age limit for appearing in GPAT

Mode of Application : Online

Mode of Payment : Net Banking | Credit Card | Debit Card | Other

Application Fees

Category Quota Mode Gender Amount
OBC, General Online, Offline Male ₹ 1400
OBC, SC, ST, General Online, Offline Female, Transgender ₹ 700
OBC, SC, ST, General PWD Online, Offline Male, Female, Transgender ₹ 700

GPAT 2019 application form is available online from November 1. To fill the application form candidates will have to first register and then enter their details related to academic, personal, communication address, qualifying examination etc. Thereafter, scanned images of photograph and signature will also be uploaded.

Steps to fill GPAT Application Form

Step 1: Registration

Candidates must enter their personal and contact details, chose a password and then submit them.  A  system generated Application Number will be displayed which must be noted down. This will be used to complete the remaining details and steps in the GPAT application form. It will also be required for all future correspondence and subsequent logins

Step 2: Complete the GPAT Application Form 

Candidates must login with their GPAT 2019 Application Number and Password to fill the remaining details in the application form.

Step 3: Upload Scanned Images of Candidate 

The images as specified below must be uploaded. Both the photograph and  signature should be in JPG/JPEG format. The size of scanned photograph should be between 10 kb to 200 kb while that of the signature should be between 4 kb to 30 kb. Photograph should be coloured or black/white (but in clear contrast).

Imp: Facility for correction in images will not be provided. So it is advisable to upload the images correctly

Step 4: Pay Examination Fee 

Candidates will be able to deposit application fees either through online and offline mode. 

  • For online mode: Candidates can use credit/debit card/netbanking
  • For Online mode: Payment through cash at any designated SBI bank branches

Payment Details:

  • General/ OBC: Rs 1400
  • SC/ST/PwD/Female: Rs 700

Step 5: Print Confirmation Page

 After successful payment, candidates will be able to print the Confirmation Page. This is to be kept safe for future reference. 

In case the Confirmation Page is not generated after payment of fee, candidates may note that the transaction may have been cancelled and the amount will be refunded to the candidate's account. In such a case, they may have to make another payment to successfully submit the GPAT application form.

GPAT 2019 Application Process

GPAT 2019 Syllabus

Physical chemistry
Composition and physical states of matter Intermolecular forces and their impact on state of the matter
Various physical properties of matter
Dipole moment
Dielectric constant
Van der waal's equation and critical phenomenon
Liquefaction of gases
Colligative properties Liquid State
Vapor pressure
Ideal and real solutions
Raoult's law
Elevation of boiling point
Depression of freezing point
Osmotic pressure
Determination of molecular weight based on colligative properties
Thermodynamics First, second and third law of thermodynamics
Thermochemical laws
Isothermic and adiabetic processes
Reversible processes,
Work of expansion
Heat content
Heat capacity
Gibb's and helmoltz equation and chemical potential
Chemical equillibria
Phase rule One, two, and three component systems along with their applications
Solid- solid systems
Solid - liquid systems
Liquid-liquid systems
Distillation of binary systems
Azeotropic mixtures
Vacuum and fractional distillation
Refractive index Introuduction of refractive index
Specific refractivity
Molar refractivity
Solutions Solubility
Factors affecting solubility
Solubility curves
Types of solutions
Effect of cosolvancy
Ph and other factors on solubility
Solubility of gases in liquids
Liquids in liquids
Solids in liquids
Critical solution temperature
Law of partitioning and its applications
Solute solvent interactions
Expression of concentration of pharmaceutical solutions and calculations
Mole fraction and percentage expressions
Electrochemistry Properties of electrolyte solutions
Faraday's law of electrolysis
Electron transport
Electrical cell
Single electrode potential
Concentration cells
Half-cells and half cell potential
Types of half cells
Sign convention,
Nerst equation
Salt bridge
Electromotive series
Standard potential
Standard hydrogen electrode
Measuring the relative voltage of half cells
Calculation of standard potential
Reference and indicator electrodes
Standard oxidation
Reduction potential
Ionic equilibrium Theory of conductivity
Equivalent conductance
Mobility of ions
Specific conductance
Kinetics Order of reactions
Derivation and internal form of rate laws
Molarities of reaction
Derivation of rate constants
Physical pharmacy
Matter, properties of matter States of matter
Change in the state of matter
Latent heat and vapor pressure
Critical point
Eutectic mixtures
Relative humidity
Liquid complexes
Liquid crystals
Glasses state
Solid crystalline and amorphous polymorphism
Micromeritics and powder rheology Particle size and distribution
Average particle size number and weight distribution
Particle number
Method of determining particle size and volume
Optical microscopy
Determining surface areas
Derived properties of powders
Packing arrangement densities
Bulkiness and flow properties
Surface and interfacial phenomenon Liquid interface
Surface and interfacial tensions
Surface free energy
Measurement of surface and interfacial tension
Spreading coefficient
Adsorption and liquid interfaces
Surface active agents
Hlb classification
Absorption at solid interfaces
Solid gas and solid liquid interfaces
Complex films
Electrical properties of interfaces
Viscosity and rheology Newtonian systems
Law of flow
Kinematics viscosity
Effect of temperature
Non newtonian systems
Thixotropy in formulations
Determination of viscosity and thixotropy by capillary
Falling ball
Rotational viscometer
Application of theology in pharmacy
Dispersion systems Colloidal dispersions
Properties of colloids
Protective colloids
Application of colloids in pharmacy
Suspensions and emulsions
Interfacial properties of suspended particles settling in suspension
Theory of sedimentation
Effect of brownian movement
Sedimentation of flocculated particles
Sedimentation parameters
Wetting of particles
Significance of electrical properties in dispersions
Controlled flocculation
Flocculation in structured vehicles
Rheological considerations
Types of emulsions
Theories of emulsions
Physical stability of emulsions
Complexation Classification of complexes
Methods of preparations and analysis
Buffer Buffer equations and buffer capacity in general
Buffers in pharmaceutical systems
Preparations and stability
Buffered isotonic solutions
Measurements of tonicity calculations and methods of adjusting isotonicity
Solubility Miscibility-influence of foreign substances
Three component systems
Dielectric constant and solubility
Solubility of solids in liquids
Ideal and non-ideal solutions
Solvation and association in solutions
Solubility of salts in water
Solubility of slightly soluble and weak electrolyte
Calculating solubility of weak electrolytes as influenced by ph, influence of solvents on the solubility of drugs
Combined effect of ph and solvents
Distribution of solutes between immiscible solvents
Effect of ionic dissociation and molecular association on partition
Preservatives action of weak acids in emulsions
Drug action and distribution co-efficient
Concepts of dissolution and diffusion
Organic chemistry
General principles A brief review of classification and sources of organic compounds
Sp3, sp2, sp hybridization
Sigma and pi- bonds
Bond lengths
Bond angles and bond energies along with their significance in reactions should be carried out
Overview of bond polarization
Hydrogen bonds
Inductive effects
Resonance, and hyper conjugation be taken
Concept of homolytic and heterolytic bond fission
Acidity and basicity with different theories should be covered briefly
Ease of formation and order of stabilities of electron deficient and electron rich species along with the reasons for the same should be covered
Relationships between energy content, stability, reactivity and their importance in chemical reactions should be covered.
Calculations for determining empirical and molecular formula should be covered
Different classes of compounds Alkanes including cyclic compounds
Alkenes including cyclic compounds
Alkynes with only open chain compounds
Aliphatic hydroxyl compounds
Alkyl halides
Aldehydes and Ketones
Carboxylic Acids
All functional derivatives of carboxylic acids
Protection and deprotection of groups Introduction to protection and deprotection of functional groups
Two examples each for amino, hydroxyl, and carbonyl groups
The significance of these in syntheses should be explained
Aromaticity and aromatic chemistry Concept of aromaticity
Huckel's rule and its use in determining the aromatic / nonaromatic character of a compound
A brief coverage of structure of benzene
Detailed coverage of electophilic and nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions
Reactivity and orientation in these reactions
Reactivity and orientation in mono- and disubstituted benzenes
Benzyne mechanism
Different aromatic classes of compounds Aromatic hydrocarbons.
Phenolic compounds.
Aromatic and aliphatic amines
Diazonium salts.
Aromatic nitro- compounds, aryl halides, and ethers.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Syntheses and reactions with mechanisms of bi and tricyclic fused carbocyclic rings like naphthalene, anthracene, and phenanthrene
Carbonyl chemistry Carbonyl chemistry involving group conversions and their reaction mechanisms along with stereochemistry wherever applicable
Wolf-kishner reduction and huang-minlong modification
Reduction of arylsulfonyl hydrazine / hydrazones to alkanes.
Bamford steven reaction
Dcc oxidation of alcohol
Michael addition / 1,4-addition / conjugate addition
Mannich condensation / reaction.
Robinson annulation.
Stobbe condensation
Darzen's glysidic ester synthesis
Beckmann rearrangement
Baeyer villiger rearrangement
Curtius, wolff, and lossen rearrangements
Willgerodt rearrangement.
Pinacol-pinacolone rearrangement
Methylene transfer reactions
Use of diazomethane and sulphurylides in the same
Mono- and dialkylations in 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds
Formation and use of enol ethers, enol acetates and enamines as protective groups and in regiospecific alkylations
Heterocyclic chemistry Iupac nomenclature of heterocyclic rings [3-10 membered] containing o, s, and n atoms. nomenclature of above rings containing mono-,di-, and multiple [same or different] heteroatoms should also be covered
Nomenclature of 2 and 3 fused rings containing mono-, di-, and multiple heteroatoms [same or different] should also be covered
Syntheses and reactions of three to six membered rings in detail
Syntheses of five and six membered rings containing mono- or any di- heteroatoms [o, s, and n]
Syntheses of quinoline, isoquinoline, benzoxole, benzthiole, and benzazole, benzdiazole, benzoxazole, and benzthiazole.
Bridged rings Bridged ring systems and their nomenclature
Kinetic and thermodynamic control Kinetic and thermodynamic control of sulfonation, enolate anion formation and alkylation of enamine reactions.
Stereochemistry Chirality and asymmetry with introduction of the same to s, p and n
Definition and classification of different types of isomerisms
Enantiomerism and diastereomerism
Meso compounds and their optical activity
Stereochemistry in acyclic compounds
Newman projection formulae and their significance
Conformational analysis of n- butane
Absolute and relative configuration
Assigning r and s configuration based on cahn ingold and prelog system
Racemic mixture- its definition and resolution
Definitions of terms stereoselective
Enantiomeric excess and distereomeric excess
Stereochemistry in cyclic systems
Conformations of cyclohexane
Cis - trans relationship in cyclohexane
Prediction of stability of different conformations of 1, 2- 1,3- and 1,4- disubstituted cyclohexanes
Effect of multiple substitutions on the stability of cyclohexane conformations
Chair conformations of cis-, and trans-decalins, perhydrophenanthrenes, and a tetracyclic steroidal nucleus
An introduction to atropisomerism
Carbohydrates Definition and classification
D and l nomenclature in sugars.
Different ways of drawing / representing a sugar molecule [including cyclic structure]
Interconversion of these representations
Anomers and epimers
Reactions of glucose
Chain extension and chain reduction of a sugar.
Amino acids and proteins Amino acids and proteins
Definition and classification
D and l amino acids, natural, essential, and non-essential amino acids
Denaturation, strecker, gabriel phthalamide methods for the preparation of amino acids
Peptide bond and its formation
Two protective groups each, for -nh2 and -cooh functionalities during protein synthesis
Sequencing of a protein by chemical and enzymatic methods
Organometalic chemistry Organometalic chemistry [preparation and few reactions] of cu and boron
Pericyclic reactions Concept of homo and lumo
Drawing of homo and lumo of 1, 3- butadiene, allylic cation, radical and anion, and 1, 3, 5-hexatriene
Meaning of conrotatory and disrotatory
Allowed and disallowed thermal and photochemical reactions
Introduction to sigmatropic, electrocyclic and (4n + 2) cycloaddition reactions
Cope, oxy-cope in claisen rearrangement, diel's-alder and retro diel's alder reaction
Pharmaceutical chemistry
Pharmaceutical impurities Impurities in pharmaceutical substances
Types and effects of impurities
Limit tests for heavy metals like lead, iron, arsenic, mercury and for chloride and sulphate as per indian pharmacopoeia [i. p.].
Monographs Monograph and its importance
Various tests included in monographs as per i. p. a study of the following compounds with respect to their methods of preparation, assay, and pharmaceutical uses
Sodium citrate, calcium carbonate, copper sulphate, light and heavy kaolin, ammonium chloride and ferrous gluconate.
Isotopes Stable and radioactive
Mode and rate of decay
Types and measurement of radioactivity
Radiopharmaceuticals and their diagnostic and therapeutic applications in pharmacy and medicine such as 125i, 32p, 51cr, 60co, 59fe, 99tc-m
Radiocontrast media
Use of baso4 in medicine
Therapeutic classes of drugs Dentifrices, desensitizing agents, and anticaris agents.
General anesthetics
Local anesthetics.
Antiseptics, disinfectants, sterilants, and astringents
Diagnostic agents.
Coagulants, anticoagulants and plasma expanders
Drug metabolism Introduction to drug metabolism based on the functional groups.
Various classes of therapeutic agents Drug resistance, wherever applicable, should be covered in respective classes of drugs
Antiamoebic agents
Anthelmintic agents
Antibacterial sulpha drugs
Quinolone antibacterials
Antimycobacterial drugs
Antifungal agents
Antiviral agents including hiv and anti-hiv drugs
Thyroid and anti thyroid drugs
Antiallergic agents
Antiulcer agents and proton pump inhibitors.
Hypoglycemic agents
Different classes of therapeutic drugs Drug resistance, wherever applicable, should be covered in respective classes of drugs
Antiepileptic agents
Anti-anxiety drugs
Penicillins, cephalosporins and other beta- lactam antibiotics like imipenam and aztreonam
Beta-lactamase inhibitors such as clavulanic acid and sulbactum
Aminoglycoside antibiotics
Macrolide antibiotics
Polypeptide antibiotics
Anticancer antibiotics
Corticosteroids [gluco- and mineralocorticoids] and anti-inflammatory steroids
Sex steroids
Male and female contraceptive agents
Anabolic steroids
Anticancer agents
Drug resistance, wherever applicable, in respective classes of drugs
Narcotic [centrally acting] analgesics [analgetics].
Morphine and all its structural modifications [peripheral and nuclear]
Narcotic agonists and antagonists [dual and pure]
Non-narcotic analgesics [nsaids]
Difference between narcotic and nonnarcotic agents
Adrenergic drugs
Neurotransmitters and their role
General and specific adrenergic agonists and antagonists [up to alpha-2 and beta-2 only
Cholinergic agents.
Muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic agonists and antagonists [up to m2 and n2].
Neuronal [transmission] blockers
Drugs used in neuromuscular disorders
Drugs used in the treatment of parkinson's disease
Central and peripheral muscle relaxants
Hypertensive, antihypertensive, and antianginal agents
Prostaglandins, prostacyclins, and thromboxanes
Their biochemical role, biosynthesis, and inhibitors
Introduction to quantitative structure activity relationship
Linear free energy relationship
Hammett's equation
Introduction, methodology, advantages and disadvantages / limitations of hansch analysis
Asymmetric synthesis Chirality
Chiral pool
Sources of various naturally available chiral compounds
Eutomers, distomers, eudismic ratio
Enantioselectivity and enantiospecificity
Enantiomeric and diasteriomeric excess
Prochiral molecules
Asymmetric synthesis of captopril and propranolol
Combinatorial chemistry
Introduction and basic terminology
Databases and libraries
Solid phase synthesis technique
Types of supports and linkers, wang, rink, and dihydropyran derivatized linkers
Reactions involving these linkers
Manual parallel and automated parallel synthesis
Houghton's tea bag method, micromanipulation, recursive deconvolution
Mix and split method for the synthesis of tripeptides
Limitations of combinatorial synthesis
Introduction to throughput screening
Pharmacy profession Pharmacy as a career
Evaluation of pharmacy
Earlier period middle to modern ages.
Introduction to pharmaceuticals Definition of pharmaceuticals
Importance of pharmaceuticals
Scope of pharmaceutics
History and development of profession of pharmacy and pharmaceutical industry in india
Indian pharma
Industry in global perspective
Introduction to dosage form Definition of drug
New drug and dosage form
The desirable properties of a dosage form
The need of dosage form
Ideas about available type of dosage forms and new drug delivery system
Route of administration Route of administration with respect to dosage form design
Physiological consideration for various routes of administration
Adme Scheme of fate of dosage form after its administration
Definition and introduction to concept of absorption
Biotransformation and elimination of drug
Introduction to bioavailability and various equivalences referring plasma time profile of drug
Sources of drug information Introduction to pharmacopoeia with reference to ip, bp, usp and international pharmacopeia
Study of structure and features fo index in general and notice and compartment of monographs of excipients
Drug and drug product
Drug information system in online database
Patient-consumer information and non- print material
Classification of information
Primary, secondary and tertiary
Nomenclature of drug
Allopathic dosage form Merits and demerits
Formulation development
Vehicles and excipients with examples for the dosage form
Liquid dosage form
Monophasic liquid dosage form
Aromatic waters
Ent preparations
Crude extract Infusion
Tincture and extract
Methods of preparations of dry
Soft and liquid extract
Allergenic extract Types of allergens
Preparation of extract
Testing and standardization of extracts
Ayurvedic system of medicine Theory and basic concept
Various branches of treatment in ayurveda
Types of drug formulation in ayurveda and important ayurvedic drugs and their uses
Formulation of asavas
Homeopathic system of medicine Theory and basic concept
Source of homeopathic medicines and important homeopathic drugs and their uses
Biological products Absorbable and non-absorbable material types
Sutures and ligatures
Qc tests of materials like catgut and nylon
Gmp Introduction to gmp
Qc and qa.
Pharmaceutical plant, location, layout Plant location and lay out of an industry
Various factors affecting locational aspects of chemical and pharmaceutical plants
Layout of plant building and importance of flow sheet
Difference between scientific process and technological process
Layout of various departments
Product lay out v/s process layout
Dosage form necessities and additives Antioxidants
Coloring agents
Flavoring agents and diluting agents
Emulsifying agents
Suspending agents
Ointment bases
Solvents and others
Powders Advantages and limitations as dosage form
Manufacturing procedure and equipments
Special care and problems in manufacturing powders
Powders of ip
Effervescent granules and salts
Capsules Hard gelatin capsules
Shell formulation and manufacturing
Capsule sizes
Cleaning process general formulation contents and evaluation
Soft gelatin capsules
Shell formulation
Formulation contents
Filing of capusles
Sealing and storage
Encapsulation materials
Methods of microencapsulation
Ip formulations
Tablets Types of tablets
Ideal requirement of tablets
Granulation methods
General formulation
Compression machines
Different types of tooling’s
Difficulties in tableting
Trouble shooting aspects of capsules
Evaluation of capusles
Sugar coating
Compression coating
Film coating
Problems in tablet coatings and their trouble shooting aspects
Ip formulations
Parenterals and product requiring sterile packaging Definition
Types, advantages and limitations
General formulation
Production procedure
Production facilities
Selected ip injections
Sterile powders
Suspensions Formulation of deflocculated and flocculated suspension
Manufacturing procedure
Evaluation methods
Ip suspensions
Emulsions Types
Emulsifying agents
General formulation
Manufacturing procedure
Evaluation methods
Ip emulsions
Suppositories Ideal requirements
Manufacturing procedure
Evaluation methods
Ip products
Semisolids Definitions
General formulation
Manufacturing procedure
Evaluation methods
Ip products
Liquids of solutions, syrups, elixirs, spirits, aromatic water, liquid for external uses Definition
General formulation
Manufacturing procedure
Evaluation methods
Ip products
Pharmaceutical aerosols Definition
General formulation
Manufacturing and packaging methods
Pharmaceutical applications
Impacts of propellants on environment
Ophthalmic preparations Requirement
Methods of Preparation
Ip products
Preformulations Consideration of importance
Physical properties
Physical forms
Particle size
Crystal forms
Bulk control
Wetting, flow cohesiveness
Organoleptic properties and its effect on final product consideration of chemical properties
Enzymatic decomposition
Formulation additives
Suspending and dispersing agents dyes
Solid excipients and its effect on quality of finished product
Radio pharmaceuticals Therapeutic uses
Diagnostic uses
Facilities and work area
Preparation of radio pharmaceuticals
Radio pharmaceuticals used in medicines
Stability of formulated products Requirements
Drug regulatory aspects
Pharmaceutical products stability
Self life
Kinetic principles and stability testing Reaction rate and order
Acid base catalysis
De stabilization and accelerated stability testing
Prolonged action pharmaceuticals Benefits
Oral products
Drug elimination rate
Types and construction of implants products
Product evaluation
Parenteral products
Absorption and evaluation
Novel drug delivery system Critical fluid technology
Transdermal drug delivery system
Controlled drug delivery system
Multiple emulsion
Nano particles
Targeted drug delivery system
Inhalation and new products reported
Cosmetics Formulation and preparation of dentifrices
Hair creams
Face powders
Shaving preparations
Skin creams
Hair dyes
Manicure preparations
Packaging materials Role and features of pharmaceutical packing materials
Metal and paper as pharmaceutical packaging material
General quality control of pharmaceutical packages
Secondary and tertiary packaging materials
Child resistant and pilfer proof packaging
Gmp and validation Concept and need of good manufacturing practice guidelines
Elements of gmp covering controls of area and processes and product
Regulations related to gmp
Introduction of validation process
Types of validation
Brief methodology of process
Equipments and instrument validation
Pilot plant scale up techniques Need
Organization and layout
Scale up techniques for solid and liquid dosage forms
Technology transfer
General pharmacology Introduction to pharmacology
Scope and source of drugs
Dosage form and routes of drug administration
Mechanism of drug action
Classification and drug receptors interaction
Combined effect of drugs
Factors modifying drug action
Mechanism and principle of absorption
Metabolism and excretion of drugs
Principles of basic and clinical pharmacokinetics
Adverse drug reactions
Discovery and development of new drugs
Preclinical and clinical studies
Pharmacology of peripheral nervous system Neurohumoral transmission in autonomic and somatic
Ganglionic stimulants and blockers
Neuromuscular blocking agents and skeletal muscle relaxants of peripheral
Local anesthetic agents
Drugs used in myasthenia gravis
Pharmacology of cardiovascular system Introduction of hemodynamic and electrophysiology of heart
Anti-hypertensive drugs
Anti-anginal agents
Anti-arrhythmic drugs
Drugs used in congestive heart failure
Anti-hyperlipidemic drugs
Drugs used in the therapy of shock
Anticoagulants and haemostatic agents
Fibrinolytics and antiplatelet drugs
Blood and plasma volume expanders
Drugs acting on urinary system Diuretics and anti-diuretics
Drugs acting on respiratory system Anti-asthmatic drugs
Mucolytics and nasal decongestants
Anti-tussives and expectorants
Respiratory stimulants
Pharmacology of central nervous system Neurohumoral transmission in the c.n.s with special emphasis on pharmacology of various neurotransmitters
General anesthetics
Alcohols and disulfiram
Hypnotics and centrally acting muscle relaxants
Psychopharmacological agents
Antianxiety agents
Anti-manics and hallucinogens
Anti-epileptic drugs
Anti-parkinsonism drugs
Narcotic analgesics
Drug addiction
Drug abuse
Tolerance and dependence
Pharmacology of endocrine system Basic concepts in endocrine pharmacology
Hypothalamic and pituitary hormones
Thyroid hormones and antithyroid drugs
Calcitonin and vitamin-d
Oral hypoglycemic agents and glucagon
Acth and corticosteroids
Androgens and anabolic steroids
Progesterone and oral contraceptives
Drugs acting on the uterus
Chemotherapy General principals of chemotherapy
Sulphonamides and co-trimoxazole
Quinolines and fluoroquinolins
Aminoglycosides and miscellaneous antibiotics
Chemotherapy of tuberculosis
Fungal diseases
Viral diseases
Protozoal diseases
Worm infections
Urinary tract infections and sexually transmitted diseases
Chemotherapy of malignancy
Autacoids and their antagonists Histamine
5-ht and their antagonists
Thromboxanes and leukotrienes
Bradykinin and substance p
Anti-inflammatory and anti-gout drugs
Pharmacology of drug acting on the gastrointestinal tract Antacids
Anti-secretary and antiulcer drugs
Laxatives and antidiarrheal drugs
Appetite stimulants and suppressants
Digestants and carminatives
Emetics and antiemetics
Definition of rhythm and cycles
Biological clock and their significance leading to chronotherapy
Chronopharmacology Definition of rhythm and cycles
Biological clock and their significance leading to chronotherapy
Immnopharmacology Immunostimulants and immunosuppressants
Chemotherapy of malignant diseases Basic principal of chemotherapy
Drugs used in cancer chemotherapy
Peptides and proteins as mediators General principal of peptide pharmacology biosynthesis and regulation of peptides peptide antagonists
Protein and peptide as drugs
Nitric oxide Biosynthesis of nitric oxide and its physiological role
Therapeutic use of nitric oxide and nitric oxide donors
Clinical condition in which nitric oxide may play a part
Vitamins and minerals Vitamin deficiency diseases and their management
Role of minerals in health and diseases
Principles of toxicology Definition of poison
General principles of treatment of poisoning
Treatment of poisoning due to heavy metals
Opioids and other addict forming drugs
Study of acute
Sub acute and chronic toxicity as per oecd guidelines
Teratogenicity and mutagenicity studies
Introductory pharmacognosy Historical development
Modern concept and scope of pharmacognosy
Significance of pharmacognosy in various systems of medicine practiced in india
Homeopathic and siddha
Classification of crude drugs Based on alphabetical
Taxonomical and chemotaxonomic methods
Organized and unorganized drugs
Official and unofficial drugs
Sources of crude drugs Plants
Animals and minerals
Marine products
Plant tissue culture
Factors influencing quality of crude drugs Exogenous factors
Altitude and soil
Endogenous factors
Polyploidy and hybridization in medicinal plants
Production factors including collection
Storage and transport methods
Study of morphological and histological characters of crude drugs
Ergastic cell inclusions
Anatomical structures of both monocot and dicot stems,
Leaves and roots
Fruits and seeds
Techniques in microscopy Details of mountants
Clearing agents
Chemomicroscopic in microchemical reagents
Introduction to phytoconstituents Definition of phytoconstituents
Classification of phytoconstituents
Chemical tests and pharmaceutical importance of
Carbohydrates and their derivatives
Fats and proteins
Lipids and volatile oils
Principles of plant classification Diagnostic features and medicinal significance of important plants with special reference to
Rhodophyceae (agar, alginic acid, diatoms).
Yeast and penicillium
Pinaceae (turpentine, colophony)
Gnetaceae (ephedra)
Acanthaceae and apiaceae
Male fern
Pharmaceutical aids Biological sources
Chemical constituents
Adulterants and uses of
Acacia gum
Guar gum
Arachis oil
Castor oil
Sesame oil
Cotton seed oil
Olive oil
Regenerated fibers
Prepared chalk
Animal products Biological sources
Chemical constituents
Adulterants and uses of
Plant products Introduction to plant bitters
Cosmeceuticals and photosensitizing agents
Toxic drugs Study of allergens
Toxic mushrooms
Enzymes Biological sources
Characters and uses of
Papain bromalain
Hyaluronidase and stryptokinase
Natural pesticides and insecticides Introduction to herbicides,, ,
Fumigants and rodenticides tobacco
Pyrethrum and neem
Adulteration and evaluation of crude drugs Different methods of adulteration
Evaluation of drugs by organoleptic
Chemical and biological methods
Deterioration of herbal drugs by insects
Quantitative microscopy Definition and determination of stomatal index
Stomatal number
Palisade ratio
Vein islet number
Vein termination number
Lycopodium spore method
Micrometers and measurement of microscopic characters
Biogenetic pathways Formation of primary and secondary metabolites
Study of calvin cycle
Tca cycle
Shikimic acid pathway
embden-mayerhoff pathway
Acetate hypothesis
Isoprenoid pathway
Biosynthesis of carbohydrates
Lipids and volatile oils
Carbohydrates and lipids Biological sources
Salient morphological features
Chemical constituents
Uses of plantago
Uses of bael
Uses of chalmooogra oil
Uses of neem oil
Uses of shark liver oil
Uses of cod liver oil
Uses of guggul lipids
Tannins Biological sources
Chemical constituents
Chemical test and uses of pale catechu
Chemical test and uses of black catechu
Chemical test and uses of nutgalls
Chemical test and uses of terminalia belerica
Chemical test and uses of terminalia chebula
Volatile oils Chemical test and uses of terminalia arjuna
Biological sources
Chemical constituents
Adulterants and uses of black pepper
Adulterants and uses of turpentine
Adulterants and uses of mentha
Adulterants and uses of coriander
Adulterants and uses of cardamom
Adulterants and uses of cinnamon
Adulterants and uses of cassia
Adulterants and uses of lemon peel
Adulterants and uses of orange peel
Adulterants and uses of lemon grass
Adulterants and uses of citronella
Adulterants and uses of cumin
Adulterants and uses of caraway
Adulterants and uses of dill
Adulterants and uses of spearmint
Adulterants and uses of clove
Adulterants and uses of anise
Adulterants and uses of star anise
Adulterants and uses of fennel
Adulterants and uses of nutmeg
Adulterants and uses of eucalyptus
Adulterants and uses of chenopodium
Adulterants and uses of ajowan
Adulterants and uses of sandal wood
Resinous drugs Classification, formation and sources of resinious drugs
Chemical constituents
Identification test
Adulterants and uses of benzoin
Adulterants and uses of peru balsam
Adulterants and uses of tolu balsam
Adulterants and uses of colophony
Adulterants and uses of myrrh
Adulterants and uses of asafoetida
Adulterants and uses of jalap
Adulterants and uses of colocynth
Adulterants and uses of ginger
Adulterants and uses of turmeric
Adulterants and uses of capsicum
Adulterants and uses of cannabis
Adulterants and uses of podophyllum
Glycosides Nature and classification
biological sources
chemical constituents
Adulterants and uses of digitalis
Adulterants and uses of strophanthus
Adulterants and uses of squill
Adulterants and uses of thevetia
Adulterants and uses of oleander
Adulterants and uses of cascara
Adulterants and uses of aloe
Adulterants and uses of rhubarb
adulterants and uses of senna
Adulterants and uses of quassia
Adulterants and uses of dioscorea
Adulterants and uses of quillaia
Adulterants and uses of glycyrrhiza
Adulterants and uses of ginseng
Adulterants and uses of gentian
Adulterants and uses of wild cherry
Adulterants and uses of withania
Adulterants and uses of bitter almond
Biosynthesis of cardiac and anthraquinone glycosides
Alkaloids Nature, classification, biological sources of alkaloids
Chemical constituents
Adulterants and uses of areca nut
Adulterants and uses of belladonna
Adulterants and uses of hyoscymous
Adulterants and uses of stramonium
Adulterants and uses of duboisea
Adulterants and uses of coca
Adulterants and uses of coffee
Adulterants and uses of tea
Adulterants and uses of cinchona
Adulterants and uses of opium
Adulterants and uses of ipecac
Adulterants and uses of nux vomica
Adulterants and uses of ergot
Adulterants and uses of rauwolfia
Adulterants and uses of vinca
Adulterants and uses of kurchi
Adulterants and uses of ephedra
Adulterants and uses of colchicum
Adulterants and uses of vasaca
Adulterants and uses of pilocarpus
Adulterants and uses of aconite
Solanum xanthocarpum
Biosynthesis of tropane
Cinchona and opium alkaloids
Herbarium Preparation of herbarium sheets and their importance in authentication of plants
Extraction and isolation techniques General methods used for the extraction
Isolation and identification of alkaloids
Volatile oils and resins
Application of column
Paper and thin layer chromatographic techniques
For the isolation of phytopharmaceuticals
Phytopharmaceuticals Isolation
identification and estimation of caffeine
identification and estimation of eugenol
identification and estimation of digoxin
identification and estimation of piperine
identification and estimation of tannic acid
identification and estimation of diosgenin
identification and estimation of hesperidine
identification and estimation of berberine
identification and estimation of calcium sennosides
identification and estimation of rutin
identification and estimation of glycyrrhizin
identification and estimation of menthol
identification and estimation of ephedrine
identification and estimation of quinine
identification and estimation of andrographolides and guggul lipids
Quality control and standardization of herbal drugs Quality control of herbal drugs as per who
Ayush and pharmacopoeial guidelines extractive values
Ash values
Chromatographic techniques of tlc, hptlc and hplc for determination of chromatographic markers
Determination of heavy metals
Pesticides and microbial load in herbal preparations
Herbal formulations Principals involved in ayurveda,
Chinese and homeopathic systems of medicines
Preparation of ayurvedic formulations like aristas
Ghrita and bhasmas
Unani formulations like majooms
Determination of alcohol contents in arishtas and asavas
Worldwide trade of crude drugs and volatile oils Study of drugs having high commercial value and their regulations pertaining to trade
Plant biotechnology History and scope of plant tissue culture
Growth media
Plant growth regulators
Callus and suspension culture
Hairy root culture
Transgenic plants and their applications
Plant tissue culture as source of secondary metabolites.
Herbal cosmetics Importance of herbals as shampoos of soapnut
Skin care of aloe, turmeric, lemon peel, vetiver
Conditioners and hair darkeners like amla, henna, hibiscus and tea
Traditional herbal drugs Common names
Active constituents and uses of traditional and folklore
Pharmacological and clinical uses of punarnava of boerhaviadiffusa
Pharmacological and clinical uses of shankhpushpi (convolvulus microphylla)
Pharmacological and clinical uses of lehsun (allium sativum)
Pharmacological and clinical uses of guggul (commiphora mukul)
Pharmacological and clinical uses of kalmegh (andrographis peniculata)
Pharmacological and clinical uses of tulsi (ocimum sanctum)
Pharmacological and clinical uses of valerian (valerian officinalis)
Pharmacological and clinical uses of artemisia (artemisia annua)
Pharmacological and clinical uses of chirata (swertia chirata)
Pharmacological and clinical uses of ashoka (saraca indica)
Plants based industries and research institutes in india Knowledge about the herbal products being manufactured by premier herbal industries and thrust area of the institutes involved in plant research
Patents Indian and international patent laws
Proposed amendments as applicable to herbal/natural products and processes
Intellectual property rights with special reference to phytoconstituents
Pharmaceutical analysis
Importance of quality control in pharmacy
Acid-base titrations Definitions of acids and bases according to arrhenius and lewis theory
Definition of normality
Definition of molarity
Definition of molality
Definition of equivalent weight
Primary and secondary standards with examples and differences between them
Standardization of strong acids and bases using primary and secondary standards
Preparation of standard solutions of and calculations of equivalent weights of oxalic acid, potassium acid phthalate, calcium chloride dihydrate and sodium carbonate
Calculation of factors involved in standardization of sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid and oxalic acid
Direct, back and differential titrations
Application of direct and back titrations to preparations like boric acid and borax in a mixture
Ammoniated mercury
Milk of magnesia and zinc oxide ointment
Law of mass action
Acid-base equillibria
pH scale
Ph and hydronium ion concentrations in aqueous systems
Calculations of ph for weak acids and weak bases
Use and applications of ph meter
Hydrolysis of salts
Strengths of acids and bases
Dissociation constant
Theory of acid –base indicators
Neutralization of titration curves
Different types of buffers which includes chemical and biological and their composition
Buffer capacity
Buffered isotonic solutions
Calculations involving preparation of various buffer capacity solutions
Biological and pharmaceutical applications of buffers
Non-aqueous titrations Acid-base definitions according to lowry-bronsted
Lewis and arrhenius concept
Factors affecting strengths of acids and bases
Intrinsic structure and surrounding environment
Amphiprotic and aprotic solvents
Acid-base equillibria in non- aqueous media
Titrants and indicators used for assay of acidic and basic substances
Preparation of perchloric acid
Formation of onium ion
Assay of 1o, 2o, 3o amines and amine hydrochlorides using perchloric acid and the reactions involved in it
Standardization of sodium ethoxide solution
Assay of phenols and phenobarbitone
General applications of non-aqueous titrations
Oxidation- reduction titrations Definition of oxidation
Oxidizing and reducing agent
Equivalent weight
Concept of half reactions
Systematic balancing of half reactions with respect to
Oxalic acid-kmno4
Feso4-ceric nitrate and i2-sodium thiosulphate solution titrations
Calculation of equivalent weight of oxalic acid, kmno4, feso4, permangnate and i2 from half reactions
Calculation of factors for titrations mentioned in a, b and c
Redox itrations
Kmno4 as self indicator
It's preparation
Standardization and use in the assay of ferrous gluconate tablets
H2o2 and nano2 solution
Iodimetric and iodometric titrations
Definitions and difference between iodimetry and iodometry
Standardization of iodine solution
Assay of ascorbic acid and sulphur ointment by iodimetry
Assay of copper sulphate and ferric chloride by iodometry
Bromometric titrations
Iodate titrations
Standardization and use of kio3 in the assay of ascorbic acid and ki
Cerimetric titrations
Standardization and use of ceric solutions in the assay of paracetamol tablets
It's advantages over permanganate solutions
Bromine titrations
Standardization and use of bromine solution in the assay of phenol and isoniazide tablets
Potassium dichromate titrations
Standardization and use of potassium dichromate solution in the assay of ferrous ammonium sulphate
Precipitation titrations Principle of solubility product and sparingly soluble salts
Titrants and indicators used in mohr's, volhard's and fajan's methods
Preparation and standardization of silver nitrate and ammonium thiocyanate solutions
Assay of sodium chloride by mohr's method
Use of nitrobenzene in the assay of halides
Ammonium chloride and thiourea by volhard's method
Calculation of factors in argentimetric titrations
Titration curve method
General applications of precipitation titrations
Complexometric titrations Difference between double salts and co-ordinate compounds
Definitions of co-ordination number of metal ions
Ligands- uni-, bi-, and multidentate
Chelating and sequestering agents with respective examples
Structure of complexes of platinum with ammonia
Ethylene diamine tetraacetate as a multidentate ligand in complexometry
Co- ordinate compounds of edta with bi-, tri-, and tetravalent metal ions
Stability of complexes and factors affecting it
Use of buffers in edta titrations
Selective analysis of ions based on ph adjustments
Use of masking and demasking agents
Pm or metal ion indicators
Standardization of edta solution
Titration curves
And examples of assays carried out by direct and back titrations and by replacement of one complex by the other
Applications of complexometry in the assays of calcium gluconate
Milk of magnesia
Zinc undecenoate ointment and aluminium hydroxide gel
Assay of naf by indirect titration
Gravimetry Principles of gravimetry
Factors affecting precipitation
Formation and properties of precipitate
Colloidal state
Impurities in precipitate
Conditions of precipitation
Precipitation from homogenous solutions
Drying and ignition of precipitate
Experimental techniques of drying and ignition
Applications of gravimetry in pharmacy
Extraction techniques Liquid-liquid extraction
Separation of mixtures by extraction
Distribution law
Successive and multiple extraction of craig method
Continuous counter- current extraction
Effect of temperature and ph on extraction
Inert solute
Associate ion pair formation
Emulsion problem in extractions
Applications in pharmacy
Potentiometry Theory
Ion selective electrodes
Measurement of potential
Red-ox titration curve
Ph measurement
Relation of ph to potential
Applications in pharmacy
Miscellaneous methods of analysis Diazotization titrations
Kjeldahl nitrogen estimation
Karl fisher titrations
Liquid gelenicals
Oxygen flask determination of alcohol content in liquid gelenicals
Oxygen flask combustion method
Calibration of instruments
General principles of spectroscopy Wave-particle duality
Wave properties
Particulate properties
Line and band spectrum
Electromagnetic spectrum
Absorption and emission spectroscopy
Understanding of terms such as absorbance
Molar absorptivity
E 1cm 1%
Effect of solvent and ph on λmax
Ultraviolet-visible spectrometry Different electronic transitions
Auxochromes and their effects
Bathochromic and hypsochromic shifts in red and blue shifts
Beer-lambert law
Its derivation
Deviations in beer's law
Single and double beam spectrophotometers covering sources of radiations
Different monochromators
Detectors such as barrier cell
Photomultiplier tube
Photodiode array detector
Applications of this technique in qualitative and quantitative estimations giving emphasis on problem solving
Fieser-woodward rules for calculations of theoretical λmax values
Spectrofluorimetry Principle
Definitions and types of luminescence
Mechanism of fluorescence and phosphorescence
Singlet and triplet states and intersystem crossing
Fluorescence yield and factors affecting it
Quenching of fluorescence and fluorescence quenchers
Structure and fluorescence
Brief discussion of instrumentation
Applications of fluorimetry in pharmacy
Flame photometry and atomic absorption spectrometry Principle and instrumentation with emphasis on working and importance of different components
Flame absorption and emission profiles
Interferences and their avoidance
Quantitative estimations and applications
Infrared spectrometry Infrared region in em spectrum
Different stretching and bending vibrations
Components and their working of a dispersive instrument
Fourier transform technique
Ft instruments and their comparison with dispersive instruments
Sample handling techniques
Functional group and finger print regions in the spectrum
Functional groups identification and their use in characterization of compounds
Problems based on identification of functional groups from spectra of unknown compounds
Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry Principle involved in the technique
Knowledge about fundamental terms involved such as quantized absorption
Flipping of nucleus
Spin number
Magnetic moment
Magnetogyric ratio
Equations relating these terms to frequency of radiation and magnetic field without derivation of the equations
Types of relaxation processes
Low and high resolution instruments
A brief discussion on the low resolution instrumentation of 60 mhz
Quantitative knowledge of relationship between mhz and magnetic field
An introduction to superconductivity magnets
Solvents and reference standards used
Setting up of a nmr scale
Sample preparation
Shielding and deshielding of a proton and it's effect on chemical shifts
Discussion on and importance of equivalent and non equivalent protons of number of signals
Chemical shifts of position of signal and their calculation from the spectrum
Chemical shifts of different h's
Splitting multiplicity of a signal
Coupling constants of j values
Integration of area under the signal
Importance of these terms in identification or confirmation of different functional groups
Significance and contribution of j value in stereochemistry
Prediction of expected theoretical values of chemical shifts and multiplicities for all protons from simple structures containing up to 12-15 carbons
An introduction to ft-technique and its significance in 13c-nmr spectrometry
Mass spectrometry Principle
Low and high resolution instruments
Components and importance of each in brief
Different types of mass spectrometric techniques
Brief knowledge of chemical ionization mass spectrometry
Calculations of hydrogen deficiency index or unsaturation index
Base or parent peak
Molecular ion
M + 1
M + 2 peaks
Calculations of molecular weight based on m +1 and m + 2 peaks
Formation of molecular ion and further fragmentation
Rearrangements in mass spectrometry
Major modes of fragmentations of hydrocarbons
Hydroxyl compounds
Halogen compounds
Carboxylic acids and amines
Introduction is only to recent advances in ms
Polarography Principle and instrumentation
Ilkovich equation with no derivation and its importance
Dropping mercury electrode
Saturated calomel electrode
Liquid-liquid junction potential
Polarographic cell
Explanation of origin of s-shaped c-v curve
Applications 27 of this technique
Amperometric titrations
Instrumentation and applications
Nephelometry and turbidimetry Principles
Tyndall effect
Duboscq turbidimeter
Eeel's nephelometer
Chromatography Principle
Rate and plate theory
Van deemter equation and the parameters affecting separation/band broadening
Classification of chromatography
Retention factor
A detailed study of thin layer chromatography
Preparative tlc
Paper chromatography
Column chromatography
Gas chromatography
Qualitative and quantitative applications of the above techniques
An introduction to high performance thin layer chromatography
Comparison of thin layer chromatography and high performance thin layer chromatography
A brief introduction to high pressure / performance liquid chromatography
Miscellaneous An introduction to electrophoresis
An introduction to lasers and masers
Statistical treatment to experimental data
Sampling techniques and applications in pharmaceutical industry
Cell Revision of ultra structure of cell
Functions of various cellular constituents
Applications of biochemical principles to pharmacy
Carbohydrates Types of carbohydrates
Their functions
Digestion and absorption
Aerobic and anaerobic oxidation with energetics
Glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis
Hexose monophosphate shunt
Diseases associated with carbohydrate metabolism
Proteins Different types of proteins
Their functions
Digestion and absorption
Denaturation and its effect on biological activity
Renaturation of proteins
Urea formation
Urea cycle
Creatinine formation
Transamination and deamination
Proteins as enzymes
Lipids Different types of lipids
Their functions
Absorption aand metabolism
Betaoxidation of fatty acids with energetics
Biosynthesis of cholesterol from acetate
Estrogens and bile acids or salts
Ketone bodies
Their formation and biochemical significance
Diseases associated with lipid metabolism
Vitamins Definition
Structures of biochemical role except b12
Daily requirements and deficiency symptoms
Vitamins as co-factors in biochemical reactions
Biological oxidations and reductions Oxidation reduction systems in the body their role
Oxidative phosphorylation and electron transport chain
Cytochromes and inhibitors of the same
Enzymes Classification and their various roles
Enzyme co-factors
Enzyme kinetics
Michaelismenton equation along with its transformations
Double reciprocal plot
Factors affecting enzyme action
Enzyme inhibition
Competitive and noncompetitive and kinetics
Nucleic acids Different types of nucleic acids and their composition
Purine and pyrimidine bases
Sugars and phosphoric acid
Nucleosides and nucleotides
Formation of nas and their back bone
Different ways of representing dna and rna molecules
Physico-chemical properties of nas
Their stability in acidic and basic solutions
Purification and identification
Buoyant density
Sedimentation coefficient and svedberg constant of nas
De-novo biosynthesis of nas
Dna and the watson-crick model and its features
Dna as the bearer of genetic information
Central dogma of molecular genetics and the processes defined in the same
Replication of dna
Different types of rnas with their special features and functions
Minor or rare bases
Transcription and translation
Different post translational modifications of proteins
Triplet codon and the codon dictionary
An introduction to different types of mutations
Their nature and repair
Hereditary diseases Eliptocytosis
Heriditary non polyposis colorectal cancer
Diabetes insipidus
Plant cell and tissue culture Structure of plant cell
Genes and chromosomes
Cell and tissue culture
Callus culture
Suspension culture
Batch culture
Concept of somatic hybridization
Somatic embryogenesis
Processes and applications
Isolation and immobilization of enzymes and plant cells and application
Protoplast and cell fusion
Germ plasm conservation
Production of secondary metabolites by plant tissue culture
Gene transfer techniques
Animal cell culture Introduction to animal cell culture
Medium used in atc
Use of fcs
Primary culture
Secondary culture
Cell line
Concept and application with technical hurdles
Transgenic animals as source of food
Organs and tissues
Concept of xeno transplant
Fermentation technology and industrial microbiology Fermentation as biochemical process
Types of fermentations
Working and construction
Accessory components
Fermentation monitoring and in situ recovery of products
Recombinant DNA Technology Basic concepts
Role of restriction endonuclease
Dna ligase
Dna polymerase
Reverse transcriptase
Process and applications Constructing recombinant dna molecules
Dna clones sources of dna for cloning
Dna vectors
Role of expression vectors
Host cell for recombinant work
Method for screening and selecting transformants
Expression of foreign genes
Uses of recombinant dna
Pcr and applications
Human gene therapy concept and applications
Drug delivery systems in gene therapy
Biotechnologv derived products Sources and upstream processing
Escherichia coli as a source of recombinant
Therapeutic protein
Additional production systems
Fungal production systems
Transgenic Animals
Transgenic plants
Insects cell based systems
Upstream processing
Downstream processing
Product analysis
Protein -based contaminant
Removal of altered form of the protein of interest from the product stream
Determination of protein concentration
Immunological approaches to detection of contaminant
Endotoxin and other pyrogenic contaminants
Pyrogen detection
Dna as contaminant
Microbial and viral contaminant
Viral assays
Miscellaneous contaminants
Validation studies
Production and purification of recombinant proteins like,
Growth hormones
Only examples of recombinant blood products
Proteomics Introduction
Genomic study
Structural and functional genomes
Human genome project
Technologies for proteomics
Protein identification
Dimensional electrophoresis
Applications of dna and protein microarray technology
Pharmaceutical and medical application of proteomic
Formulation of proteins and peptides Introduction
Making small protein particles
Precipitation of proteins from supercritical fluids
Aseptic assembly
Quality control issues
Lyophilization of freeze-drying
Protein compaction
Introduction to microbiology Scope and application to pharmacy field
Whittaker's five kingdom concept
Historical development
Biogenesis vs. a biogenesis
Germ theory of fermentation
Germ theory of disease
Contribution of leeuwenhoek
Robert koch
Louis pasteur and ehrlich
Microscopy and staining technique Principle
Ray diagram
Working and applications of light compound
Dark field
Phase contrast
Fluorescence and electron microscope
Concept of resolving power
Magnification power
Numerical aperture and angular aperture and working distance
Principle application of oil immersion microscopy
Theory of staining
Principle and technique of staining procedure
Acid fast
Biology of microorganisms Cultural characteristics
Pure culture techniques
Morphology and fine structure of bacteria
Nutritional requirement and type of culture media
Growth and growth curve of bacteria
Physical condition for growth
Measurement of bacterial growth of counting methods
Reproduction in bacteria
Genetic exchange
Conjugation and transduction
Development of drug resistance by recombination and mutation
Preservation of bacterial culture
Biochemical properties of sugar fermentation and imvic test
Pathogenesis of staphylococcus
Salmonella introductory study of disease causing rickettsia
Importance of actinomycetes in antibiotic production
Fungi and viruses Introduction of fungi
General characteristics of fungi
Industrial and medical significance of saccharomyces cerevisae
Penicillium and aspergillus
Candida albicans
Epidermophyton and trichophyta
Introduction of viruses
Structure and general properties
Bacteriophages of lytic and lysogenic cycle
Epidemiological uses of bacteriophages
Human viruses
Cultivation and multiplication virus host cell interaction
Pathogensis of hiv and prions
Types of tumor viruses
Aseptic technique Omnipresence of microorganisms
Importance of asepsis
Sources of contamination and methods of prevention
Principle, construction and working of laminar airflow bench
Sterilization and disinfection Concept and classification of sterilization
Principle and methods of sterilization
Mechanisms of cell injury
Construction working and applications of moist heat and dry heat sterilizer
Gamma radiation sterilizer
Filtration sterilizer
Indicators of sterilization
Microbial death
Kinetic terms
D value
Z value
Terminology of chemical antimicrobial agents
Chemical classification of different disinfectants
Characteristics of ideal disinfectants
Factors affecting action of disinfectants
Evaluation methods of rw coeff
Kelsey sykes test
Microbial spoilage Chick martin test
Types of spoilage
Immunology and health Factors affecting spoilage of pharmaceutical products
Host parasite relationship
Normal microbial flora of human body
Infection vs. disease
Pathogenicity vs. virulence
Koch and rivers postulates
Reservoir of infectionsources of infection
Portals of entry
Portals of exit
Vectors of infection
Communicability of disease
Recognized symptoms of microbial disease
Classification of immunity
Xternal defense mechanism of host
Mucus membrane
Chemical secretions
Naturally occurring microbial flora
Internal defense mechanism: inflammation
Natural killer cells
Phagocytic cells
Soluble mediators
Complement lymphokines
Immune response
Specific immunity and immune response
Humoral immunity antibody response
Mediators of humoral immunity
Basic structure of antibody
Antibody classes and functions
Maturation of immune response
Immunologic memory
Specificity and immunogenicity
Natural vs. artificial antigens
Cellular antigens
Thymus independent antigen
Immediate or anaphylaxis
Compliment mediated or cytolytic hypersensitivity
Immune complex or arthrus hypersensitivity
Delayed or cell mediated hypersensitivity
Cellular immunity
Transplantation immunity
Cellular immunity to viruses
Implications of t-cell response
Acquisition of specific immunity
Natural vs. passive acquisition
Practical aspects of immunity
Measurement of humoral immunity (antibodies
Precipitation tests
Agglutination tests
Immune fluorescence
Production of monoclonal antibodies
Measurement of cell mediated immunity
Intradermal tests
Tests for migration
Mixed lymphocyte reaction
Vaccines and sera Cell mediated toxicity
Manufacturing of seed lot system and quality control of bacterial vaccines and toxoids of tetanus
Viral vaccine like polio
Salk sabin
Antisera of diphtheria
Antiviral antisera of rabies
Microbial assay Preparation of allergenic extracts and diagnostics
General methods of assay of antibiotics
Cup and plate method
Paper disc method
Dilution method
Methods for fungicidal and antiviral compounds
Microbial assay limit tests
Basic principles of cell injury and adaptation Causes
Pathogenesis and morphology of cell injury
Abnormalities in lipoproteinemia
Glycogen infiltration and glycogen storage disease
Basic mechanisms of inflammation and repair Pathogeneses of inflammation
Chemical mediators in inflammation
Pathogenesis of chronic inflammation
Repair of wounds in the skin
Factors influencing healing of wounds
Hypersensitivity Hypersensitivity type i, ii, iii, iv
Biological significance of hypersensitivity
Allergy due to food
Icals and drugs
Auto-immunity and diseases of immunity Mechanism of autoimmunity
Classification of autoimmune diseases in man
Transplantation and allograft reactions
Mechanism of rejection of allograft
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
Neoplastic diseases Disturbances of growth of cells
General biology of tumors
Differences between benign and malignant tumors
Classification of tumors
Historical diagnosis of malignancy
Etiology and pathogenesis of cancer
Patterns of spread of cancer
Environmental carcinogenesis
Shock Types of shock
Mechanisms of shock
Stages and management of shock
Biological effects of radiation Nuclear radiation
X-ray and other radiations
Protein calorie malnutrition, vitamins, obesity. starvation Deficiency of vitamins
Study of various syndromes due to obesity and starvation
Pathophvsiologv of common diseases Parkinsonism
Depression and mania
Stroke of ischemic and hemorrhage
Myocardial infarction
Diabetes mellitus
Peptic ulcer and inflammatory bowel disease
Cirrhosis and alcoholic liver diseases
Acute and chronic renal failure
Asthma and chronic obstructive airway diseases
Infectious diseases Hepatitis
Infective hepatitis
Sexually transmitted diseases
Urinary tract infections
Viral oncogenesis
Biopharmaceutics and pharmacokinetics
Bio-pharmaceutics Fate of drug after drug absorption
Various mechanisms for drug absorption
Drug concentration in blood
Biological factors in drug absorption
Physicochemical factors
Dosage form consideration for gastrointestinal absorption
Drug absorption
Gastrointestinal absorption
Biological considerations
Physicochemical considerations
Role of the dosage form
Compartmental and non-compartmental pharmacokinetics
Biotransformation and drug disposition
Eliminination and variability
Body weight, age, sex and genetic factors
Pharmacokinetic variability diseases
Pharmacokinetic variability
Drug interactions
Individualization and optimization of drug dosing regimens
Bio-availability and bio-equivalence Quality parameters of dosage forms
Assay methods and its validation
Chemical properties of drugs and added substances and its effect on preparations and biological availability of dosage forms
Pharmaceutical properties of dosage forms
Dissolution rate
Pharmacological effects of dosage forms
Factors affecting bioavailability
Determination of bioavailability
Significance of bio-equivalence studies
Statistical analysis of bioequivalence studies
Scale up and post approval changes and in vitro dissolution in vivo plasma concentration profile correlation or iv/iv correlation (ivivc)
Multi stage
Bioequivalence studies
Therapeutic equivalence
Titration design for clinical rationales
New drug application
Bio- pharmaceutical statistics Post marketing surveillance
Process validation
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics
General principles
Preparation and maintenance
Analysis of observational records in clinical pharmacy
Clinical trials
Type and phases of clinical trials
Ethical and regulatory issues including good clinical practice in clinical trials
Therapeutic drug monitoring
Adverse drug reaction
Types of adr
Mechanism of adr
Drug interaction
Monitoring and reporting of adr and its significance
Drug information services
Drug interactions
Drug interaction in pediatric and geriatric patients
Drug treatment during pregnancy
Lactation and menstruation
Essential drugs and rational drug usage
Age related drug therapy
Concept of posology
Drug therapy for neonates
Pediatrics and geriatrics
Drugs used in pregnancy and lactation
Drug therapy in gastrointestinal
Cardiovascular and respiratory disorders
Drug therapy for neurological and psychological disorders
Drug therapy in infections of respiratory system
Urinary system
Infective meningitis
Malaria and filaria
Drug therapy for thyroid and parathyroid disorders
Diabetes mellitus
Menstrual cycle disorders
Menopause and male sexual dysfunction
Drug therapy for malignant disorders like leukemia
Lymphoma and solid tumors
Drug therapy for rheumatic
Eye and skin disorders
Anatomy, physiology and health education
Cell physiology Cell
Cell junctions
Transport mechanisms
Ion channels
Secondary messengers
The blood Composition and functions of blood
Blood groups
Mechanism of clotting
Introduction to disorders of blood
Gastrointestinal tract Structure of the gastrointestinal tract
Functions of its different parts including those of liver
Pancreas and gall bladder
Various gastrointestinal structures and their role in the digestion and absorption of food
Respiratory system Structure of respiratory organs
Functions of respiration mechanism and regulation of respiration
Respiratory volumes and vital capacity
Autonomic nervous system Physiology and functions of the autonomic nervous system
Mechanism of neurohumoral transmission in ans
Sense organs Structure and physiology of eye
Taste buds
Skeletal system Structure and function of skeleton
Articulation and movement
Disorders of bones and joints
Central nervous system Functions of different parts of brain and spinal cord
Neurohumoral transmission in the central nervous system
Reflex action
Specialized functions of the brain
Cranial nerves and their functions
Urinary system Various parts structure and functions of the kidney and urinary tract
Physiology of urine formation and acid base balance
Brief introduction to disorders of kidney
Endocrine glands Basic anatomy and physiology of pituitary
Adrenal glands and pancreas
Local hormones
Brief introduction to disorders of various endocrine glands
Reproductive system Structure and functions of male and female reproductive system
Sex hormones
Physiology of menstrual cycle and various stages of pregnancy and parturition
Cardio vascular system Anatomy of heart and blood vessels
Physiology of blood circulation
Cardiac cycle
Conducting system of heart
Heart sound
Blood pressure and its regulation
Lymphatic system Composition
Formation and circulation of lymph
Spleen and its functions
Pharmaceutical engineering
Fluid flow Type of flow
Reynold's number
Concept of boundary layer
Basic equation of fluid flow
Study of valves
Flow meters
Manometers and measurement of flow and pressure including mathematical problems
Heat Transfer Source of heat
Mechanism of heat transfer
The laws of heat transfer
Steam and electricity as heating media
Determination of requirement of amount of steam/electrical energy
Steam pressure
Boiler capacity
Mathematical problems on heat transfer
Steam traps and reducing valve
Evaporation Basic concept of phase equilibrium
Factors affecting evaporation
Film evaporators
Single effect and multiple effect evaporators
Mathematical problems on evaporation
Distillation Rault's law
Phase diagram
Simple steam and flash distillation
Principles of rectification
Mc-cabe thiele method for calculations of number of theoretical plates
Azeotropic and extractive distillation
Mathematical problems on distillation
Drying Moisture content and mechanism of drying
Rate of drying and time of drying calculations
Classifications and types of dryers
Dryers used in pharmaceutical industries and special drying methods like freeze drying and lyophilization
Mathematical problems in drying
Size reduction and size separation Definition
Objectives of size reduction
Factors affecting size reduction
Laws governing in energy and power requirement of a mill
Types of mills including ball mill
Hammer mill
Fluid energy mill
Quadro co-mil
Extraction Theory of extraction
Extraction methods
Equipment for various types of extraction process
Mixing Theory of mixing
Solid-liquid and liquid-liquid mixing equipment
Crystallization Characteristics of crystals like purity
Habit, forms
Size and factors affecting them
Solubility curves and calculation curves and calculations of heat balance around s swanson's walker crystallizer
Super saturation theory and its limitations
Nucleation mechanism
Crystal growth
Study of various types of crystallizers
Agitated batch
Swanson’s walker
Single vacuums
Circulating magma and crystal crystallizers
Cracking of crystals and its prevention
Numerical problems on yields
Introduction to polymorphism
Filtration and centrifugation Theory of filtrations
Filter aids
Filter media
Industrial filters
Including filter press
Rotary filter
Edge filters
Filter leaf and laboratory filtration equipments
Factors affecting filtration
Mathematical problems on filtrations
Optimum cleaning cycle in batch filters
Principles of centrifugation
Industrial centrifugal filters and centrifugal sedimentars
Dehumidification and humidity control Basic concept and definition
Wet bulb and adiabatic saturation temperatures
Psychometric count and measurement of humidity
Application of humidity measurement in pharmacy
Equipments for humidification and dehumidification operations
Refrigeration and air conditioning Principles and applications of refrigeration and air conditioning
Material of constructions General study of composition
Properties and applications of the materials of construction with special reference to stainless steel
Glass as material of constructions
Ferrous metals as material of constructions
Cast iron as as material of constructions
Non-ferrous metals as as material of constructions
Copper and alloys as material of constructions
Aluminum and alloys as material of constructions
Lead as material of constructions
Tin as material of constructions
Silver as material of constructions
Nickel and alloys as material of constructions
Chromium and non metals as material of constructions
Stone as material of constructions
Slate as material of constructions
Brick as material of constructions
Asbestos as material of constructions
Plastics as material of constructions
Rubber as material of constructions
Timber as material of constructions
Concrete as material of constructions
Corrosion and its prevention with reference to commonly used material in pharmaceutical plants
Automated process control systems Process variable
Flow level and vacuum and their measurement
Elements of automatic process control and introduction to automatic process control
Elements of computer aided manufacturing
Industrial hazards and safety precautions Mechanical industrial hazards
Chemical industrial hazards
Electrical industrial hazards
Fire industrial hazards
Dust industrial hazards
Noise hazards
Industrial dermatitis
Records of industrial hazards
Safety requirements/equipments
Pharmaceutical management
Introduction to management Types of management
Basic concepts of management
Management process
Function and principles
Levels of Management
Pharmaceutical management art
Science or profession
Social responsibilities of management
Functions of management
Planning and forecasting Nature
Process and types of planning
Steps in planning process
Planning premises
Advantages and limitations of planning
Management by objective
Objective features
Advantages and limitations
Techniques of forecasting
Organization Definition
Line and staff organization concepts
Research management R and d organizations and research categories
Elements needed for an r and d organization
Technology transfer
Inventory management Objective and functions of inventory control
Types of inventories
Requirements of effective inventory control
Communication Nature of communication
Types of communication
Process of communication
Channels and barriers of communication
Limitations of communications
Importance in pharmaceutical industries
Marketing research New product selection
Product management
Leadership and motivation
Leadership styles
Theories of leadership
Theories of motivation
Human resource and development Definition
Hrd methods
Hrd process
Hrd in indian industry
Gatt General agreement on tariff and trade and its impact on pharmaceutical industry
History of gatt
Its impact on pharmaceutical industry
Pharmaceutical market in india
World trade organization and trade related intellectual property rights Introduction to wto
Types of intellectual property rights
Industrial property and copyrights indian patent acts
1970 with latest amendment
Types of patents
Standard institutions and regulatory authorities Bureau of indian standards
International organization for standardization
United states of food and drug administration
Central drug standard control organization
International conference on harmonization
World health organization
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence
Historical background drug legislation in india
Code of ethics for pharmacists
The pharmacy act 1948
Drugs and cosmetics act 1940
Rules 1945
Including new drug applications
Narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances act and rules there under
Drugs and magic remedies act 1954
Medicinal and toilet preparations (excise duties) act 1955, rules 1976
Medical termination of pregnancy act 1970 and rules 1975
Prevention of cruelty to animals act 1960
Drug price control order
Shops and establishment act
Factory act
Consumer protection act
Indian pharmaceutical industry
An overview
Industrial development and regulation act 1951
Introduction to intellectual property rights and indian patent act 1970
An introduction to standard institutions and regulatory authorities such as bis
Minimum wages act 1948
Prevention of food adulteration act 1954 and rules 1955
Dispencing and hospital pharmacy
Introduction to laboratory equipments
Weighing methodology
Handling of prescriptions
Labeling instructions for dispensed products
Preparations based on percolation process
Preparations based on maceration process
Study of difference between marketed and dispensed products of different dosage forms
Posological calculations involved in calculation of dosage for infants. enlarging and reducing formula, displacement value
Preparations of formulations involving allegation
Alcohol dilution
Isotonic solution
Study of current patent and proprietary products
Generic products and selected brand products
Contra indications
Adverse drug reactions
Available dosage forms and packing of antihypertensive drug
Available dosage forms and packing of antiamoebic drugs
Available dosage forms and packing of anti histaminic drugs
Available dosage forms and packing of anti emetic drugs
Available dosage forms and packing of antacids and ulcer healing drugs
Available dosage forms and packing of anti diarrheals and laxatives
Available dosage forms and packing of respiratory drugs
Available dosage forms and packing of antibiotics
Available dosage forms and packing of analgesics and antipyretic drugs
Compounding and dispensing of following prescriptions
Ointments / paste
Prescription based on physical
Chemical and therapeutic
Reading and counseling of prescriptions from the clinical practice
Designing from mock pharmacy
Layout and structure of retail pharmacy
Recording and counseling of prescription
Procurement of information for the given drug for drug information services

Exam Pattern of GPAT 2019 has been officially mentioned in the information brochure released by NTA on November 1. Candidates appearing for the exam are advised to know the GPAT exam pattern to get an understanding of the type of questions to expect, duration of exam etc.

GPAT 2019 Exam Pattern can be checked as follows

  • Mode of examination- Computer-based online test
  • Language: English
  • Duration of examination- 3 hours
  • Type of questions- Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)
  • Total number of questions- 125
  • Marking Scheme- +4 for every correct answer, while -1 for every incorrect response

The admit card of GPAT 2019 will be released by NTA in online mode on January 7. The admit card of GPAT 2019 will carry details related to exam, test centre, hall ticket number, the name of the candidate etc. To download GPAT 2019 admit card candidates need to log-in using application number and date of birth/password. However,  before downloading the admit card, candidates must check all the details furnished on it. Also, candidates must remember that GPAT 2019 admit card is an important document. If a candidate fails to carry it to the examination hall, they will not be allowed to appear for the entrance exam.

Documents to be carried along with GPAT 2019 admit card

  • One passport size photograph. This should be the same as uploaded for the online application form and will be used for pasting on the specific space in the attendance sheet at the GPAT exam centre during the exam.
  • Any one of the photo IDs mentioned below. Candidates must carry the original, valid and non-expired photo IDs: PAN card/ Driving License/ Voter ID/ Passport/ Aadhaar Card (With photograph)/ Ration Card
  • PwD certificate issued by the Competent Authority if applicable

GPAT 2019 Exam Centers

State City
Gujarat Ahmedabad
Uttar Pradesh Allahabad
Maharashtra Amravati
Navi Mumbai
Tamil Nadu Madurai
Karnataka Mangalore
Delhi New Delhi
Madhya Pradesh Bhopal
Odisha Bhubaneswar
Andhra Pradesh Nellore
Chandigarh Chandigarh
Goa Panaji
Uttarakhand Dehradun
Bihar Patna
Chhattisgarh Raipur
Haryana Gurgaon
Assam Guwahati
Jharkhand Ranchi
Telangana Hyderabad
Himachal Pradesh Shimla
Jammu and Kashmir Srinagar
Rajasthan Jaipur
Kerala Thiruvananthapuram
West Bengal Kolkata
Punjab Amritsar
Tripura Agartala

Documents Required at Exam

  • GPAT 2019 Admit Card
  • A Valid Photo ID Proof
  • one photograph similar to the one uploaded with the application form
  • PwD certificate if applicable

The result of GPAT 2019 will be announced in online mode. The result will carry details such as candidate’s rank, qualifying status and score. To check the GPAT 2019 result candidates will have to enter their email-id and password. Also, after the announcement of the result, the authorities will release GPAT merit list and scorecard in online mode. To check the scorecard candidates need to enter their registered e-mail ID and password.  

GPAT result is valid for a period of three years from its declaration. The score card is used for admissions at more than 800 institutes offering M.Pharm courses across the country.

200 Colleges Accepting Admission
through GPAT

Click here

GPAT Answer Key 2019 contains the correct answers to the quastions asked in the entrance exam. Candidates can cross check and then calculate their scores. They can even raise objections to any answer if they have proof of the same. 

GPAT Answer Key Display

The answer key will be displayed soon after the exam along with the recorded responses of the candidates. These responses can be downloaded by students after logging in. Candidates can co-relate their answers with the answer key displayed. 

How to challenge the GPAT 2019 answer key?

  • Candidates must fill the specific online application and pay a sum of Rs 1000 per question through credit/debit card/Net banking
  • The NTA’s committee will look into the objections and release the final answer key after consideration of the same. The decision on the challenges shall be final and no further communication will be entertained by the authorities.

GPAT 2019 cutoff will be taken as the screening process for admission to various Master of Pharmacy (M.Pharmacy) programmes. NTA will be determining the cutoff of GPAT 2019 which will be the minimum qualifying score required for admissions. Various factors like availability of seats, the difficulty level of exam, number of candidates applied for etc will be considered while determining the GPAT 2019 cutoff.  

GPAT Cutoff Trends







General and OBC






Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe






Physically Handicapped






Mode of Counselling: Online, Offline

NTA will not conduct the counselling for GPAT 2019. Individual participating institutes will be conducting the counselling based on the GPAT score. Qualified candidates will have to register to the institutes for the counselling procedure separately. The counselling schedule will be released by the GPAT 2019 participating institutes separately. More than 800 institutes offer admissions to the masters in Pharmacy programmes in the country on the basis of GPAT scores.

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