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About GPAT 2023

The National Testing Agency (NTA) conducts the Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test (GPAT) entrance exam for admission to Master of Pharmacy (MPharm) courses. GPAT 2023 exam will be held for admission to around 39,890 M.Pharm seats in more than 800 institutes across India.

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All pharmacy graduates who want to appear for GPAT 2023 have to fulfill the eligibility criteria and register for the M Pharmacy entrance exam. The GPAT 2023 registration dates will be out soon at gpat.nta.nic.in. The GPAT exam date 2023 will also be out with the release of an information brochure.

GPAT will be held in computer-based mode. As per the GPAT exam pattern 2023, the exam contained 125 multiple choice questions asked from Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Pharmaceutics, Pharmacognosy, Pharmacology, and other subjects. Only three hours will be given for the GPAT 2023 MPharm entrance exam. As per the exam pattern of GPAT, 4 marks will be awarded for correct answers and one mark will be deducted for incorrect responses.

On the basis of the exam, GPAT result 2023 will be announced in the form of a scorecard and mentions the candidate's details, scores obtained (out of 500), percentile, cutoff, and other details. Candidates included in the GPAT result need to secure GPAT cut-off marks as specified by NTA to qualify for the exam.

Aspirants who will qualify for GPAT results will be called for GPAT 2023 counselling. The counselling for GPAT 2023 will be conducted by respective colleges. The qualified candidates will be required to register themselves in each college to participate in GPAT counselling 2023. The cut-offs to participate in GPAT 2023 counselling will be announced by colleges separately.

GPAT 2023 Highlights

Full Exam NameGraduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test
Short Exam NameGPAT
Conducting BodyNational Testing Agency
Frequency of ConductOnce a year
Exam LevelNational Level Exam
LanguagesEnglish
Mode of ApplicationOnline
Application Fee (General)2000 Rs [Online]
Mode of ExamOnline
Mode of CounsellingOnline / Offline
Participating Colleges317
Exam Duration3 Hours

Download all details about GPAT 2023

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The eligibility criteria for GPAT 2023 mentions the minimum requisites that a candidate has to fulfill in order to appear for GPAT. Candidates must meet the following eligibility criteria prescribed by the authorities:

Nationality: Must be a citizen of India

Qualifying Examination: Must hold a Bachelor’s degree in Pharmacy (4 years after class 12).
Lateral entry candidates can also apply. Apart from this, candidates who are in the final year of the B. Pharmacy course are also eligible.

Who is not eligible: B.Tech (Pharmaceutical and fine chemical technology)/ Equivalent Students are not eligible.

Age Limit: There is no age limit for appearing in GPAT

Mode of Application : Online

Mode of Payment : Net Banking | Credit Card | Debit Card | Paytm | BHIM | Other

NTA will release the application of GPAT 2023 on the official website. Only eligible candidates will complete the GPAT registration 2023. To fill the GPAT application form candidates have to first register and then enter their details related to academic, personal, communication address, qualifying examination, etc. Thereafter, scanned images of the photograph and signatures are uploaded.

Steps to fill GPAT Application Form

Step 1: Registration

Candidates must enter their personal and contact details, choose a password, and then submit them. A system-generated Application Number displays which must be noted down. This is used to complete the remaining details and steps in the GPAT application form 2023. It is also required for all future correspondence and subsequent logins

Step 2: Complete the GPAT Application Form

Candidates must login with their GPAT 2023 Application Number and Password to fill the remaining details in the application form.


Step 3: Upload Scanned Images of Candidate

The images as specified below must be uploaded. Both the photograph and signature should be in JPG/JPEG format. The size of the scanned photograph should be between 10 kb to 200 kb while that of the signature should be between 4 kb to 30 kb. The photograph should be colored or black/white (but in clear contrast).

Imp: Facility for correction in images is not provided. So it is advisable to upload the images correctly

Step 4: Pay Examination Fee

Candidates have to deposit application fees either online or offline mode.

  • For online mode: Candidates can use credit/debit card/net banking/Paytm/UPI
  • For Online mode : Payment through cash at any designated SBI bank branches

Payment Details:

  • General - Rs. 2000
  • OBC-NCL/SC/ST/PwD/Female/Transgender: Rs. 1000

Step 5: Print Confirmation Page

After successful payment, candidates are able to print the confirmation page. This is to be kept safe for future reference.

In case the Confirmation Page is not generated after payment of the fee, candidates may note that the transaction may have been canceled and the amount is refunded to the candidate's account. In such a case, they may have to make another payment to successfully submit the GPAT application form.

Application Fees

CategoryQuotaModeGenderAmount
GeneralOnlineMale₹ 2000
General, OBC, EWS, SC, STOnlineFemale₹ 1000
ST, EWS, OBC, SCOnlineTransgender, Male₹ 1000
General, OBC, EWS, SC, STPWDOnlineTransgender, Female, Male₹ 1000

Physical chemistry-

Physical chemistry: Unit 01
Composition and physical states of matter
Intermolecular forces and their impact on the state of the matter
Various physical properties of matter, dipole moment, dielectric constant, Van Der Waal's equation and critical phenomenon, liquefaction of gases, aerosols
Physical chemistry: Unit 02
Colligative properties
The liquid state, vapour pressure, ideal, and real solutions
Raoult's law, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular weight based on colligative properties
Physical chemistry: Unit 03
Thermodynamics
First, second, and third law of thermodynamics
Thermochemical laws, isothermic, and adiabatic processes, reversible processes, work of expansion, heat content, enthalpy, heat capacity
Gibb's and Helmholtz equation, and chemical potential
Physical chemistry: Unit 04
Refractive index
Refractive index, specific refractivity, molar refractivity, refractometers
Physical chemistry: Unit 05
Solutions
Solubility, factors affecting solubility, solubility curves
Types of solutions, effect of co-solvency, pH and other factors on solubility
Solubility of gases in liquids, liquids in liquids, and solids in liquids, critical solution temperature, law of partitioning and its applications
Solute-solvent interactions
Expression of the concentration of pharmaceutical solutions and calculations
Molarity, molality, mole fraction, and percentage expressions
Physical chemistry: Unit 06
Electrochemistry
Properties of electrolyte solutions, electrolysis
Faraday's law of electrolysis, electron transport, electrical cell, single electrode potential, concentration cells, half-cells and half-cell potential, types of half cells, sign convention, Nernst equation, salt bridge, electromotive series
Standard potential, SHE
Measuring the relative voltage of half cells, calculation of standard potential
Reference and indicator electrodes
Standard oxidation-reduction potential
Physical chemistry: Unit 07
Ionic equilibrium
Theory of conductivity, equivalent conductance, mobility of ions, specific conductance
Physical chemistry: Unit 08
Kinetics
Order of reactions, derivation, and internal form of rate laws, molarities of reaction, derivation of rate constants

Physical pharmacy+

Physical pharmacy: Unit 01
Matter, properties of matter
States of matter, change in the state of matter, latent heat and vapour pressure, sublimation-critical point, eutectic mixtures, gases, aerosols-inhalers, relative humidity, liquid complexes, liquid crystals, glasses state
Solid crystalline and amorphous polymorphism
Physical pharmacy: Unit 02
Micromeritics and powder rheology
Particle size and distribution, average particle size number and weight distribution, particle number, methods of determining particle size and volume, optical microscopy, sieving, sedimentation, determining surface areas, permeability, adsorption
Derived properties of powders, porosity, packing arrangement densities, bulkiness and flow properties
Physical pharmacy: Unit 03
Surface and interfacial phenomenon
Liquid interface, surface and interfacial tensions, surface free energy, measurement of surface and interfacial tension, spreading coefficient, adsorption and liquid interfaces, surface active agents, HLB classification, solubilization, detergency
Absorption at solid interfaces, solid gas and solid-liquid interfaces, complex films, electrical properties of interfaces
Physical pharmacy: Unit 04
Viscosity and rheology
Newtonian systems, law of flow, kinematics viscosity, effect of temperature, non-Newtonian systems, pseudo plastics, dilatant, plastic, thixotropy in formulations, determination of viscosity and thixotropy by capillary, falling ball, rotational viscometer
Application of theology in pharmacy
Physical pharmacy: Unit 05
Dispersion systems
Colloidal dispersions: Definition, types, properties of colloids, protective colloids, application of colloids in pharmacy
Suspensions and emulsions: Interfacial properties of suspended particles settling in suspension, theory of sedimentation, effect of Brownian movement, sedimentation of flocculated particles, sedimentation parameters, wetting of particles
Suspensions and emulsions: Significance of electrical properties in dispersions, controlled flocculation, flocculation in structured vehicles, rheological considerations, emulsions: Types, theories, physical stability
Physical pharmacy: Unit 06
Complexation
Classification of complexes, methods of preparations, and analysis, applications
Physical pharmacy: Unit 07
Buffer
Buffer equations and buffer capacity in general
Buffers in pharmaceutical systems, preparations, and stability, buffered isotonic solutions
Measurements of tonicity calculations and methods of adjusting isotonicity
Physical pharmacy: Unit 08
Solubility
Miscibility: Influence of foreign substances, three component systems; dielectric constant and solubility, solubility of solids in liquids, ideal and non-ideal solutions, solvation and association in solutions, solubility of salts in water
Miscibility: Solubility of slightly soluble and weak electrolyte, calculating solubility of weak electrolytes as influenced by pH, influence of solvents on the solubility of drugs, combined effect of pH and solvents
Miscibility: Distribution of solutes between immiscible solvents, effect of ionic dissociation and molecular association on partition, extraction, preservatives action of weak acids in emulsions, drug action and distribution coefficient
Concepts of dissolution and diffusion

Organic chemistry+

Organic chemistry: Unit 01
General principles
A brief review of classification and sources of organic compounds, sp³, sp², sp hybridization, sigma and pi-bonds, bond lengths, bond angles, and bond energies along with their significance in reactions should be carried out
An overview of bond polarization, hydrogen bonds, inductive effects, resonance, and hyper conjugation be taken
Concept of homolytic and heterolytic bond fission, acidity, and basicity with different theories should be covered briefly
Ease of formation and order of stabilities of electron deficient, and electron rich species along with the reasons for the same should be covered
Relationships between energy content, stability, reactivity, and their importance in chemical reactions should be covered
Calculations for determining empirical and molecular formula should be covered
Organic chemistry: Unit 02
Different classes of compounds
Alkanes (including cyclic compounds): IUPAC/ systematic nomenclature, industrial (wherever applicable) and laboratory methods of preparations
Alkanes (including cyclic compounds): Physical properties and chemical reactions with emphasis on reaction mechanisms (arrow based), and stereochemistry (wherever applicable)
Alkenes (including cyclic compounds): IUPAC/ systematic nomenclature, industrial (wherever applicable) and laboratory methods of preparations
Alkenes (including cyclic compounds): Physical properties and chemical reactions with emphasis on reaction mechanisms (arrow based), and stereochemistry (wherever applicable)
Alkynes (only open-chain compounds): IUPAC/ systematic nomenclature, industrial (wherever applicable) and laboratory methods of preparations
Alkynes (only open-chain compounds): Physical properties and chemical reactions with emphasis on reaction mechanisms (arrow based), and stereochemistry (wherever applicable)
Aliphatic hydroxyl compounds: IUPAC/ systematic nomenclature, industrial (wherever applicable) and laboratory methods of preparations
Aliphatic hydroxyl compounds: Physical properties and chemical reactions with emphasis on reaction mechanisms (arrow based), and stereochemistry (wherever applicable)
Alkyl halides: IUPAC/ systematic nomenclature, industrial (wherever applicable) and laboratory methods of preparations
Alkyl halides: Physical properties and chemical reactions with emphasis on reaction mechanisms (arrow based), and stereochemistry (wherever applicable)
Aldehydes and ketones: IUPAC/ systematic nomenclature, industrial (wherever applicable) and laboratory methods of preparations
Aldehydes and ketones: Physical properties and chemical reactions with emphasis on reaction mechanisms (arrow based), and stereochemistry (wherever applicable)
Carboxylic acids: IUPAC/ systematic nomenclature, industrial (wherever applicable) and laboratory methods of preparations
Carboxylic acids: Physical properties and chemical reactions with emphasis on reaction mechanisms (arrow based), and stereochemistry (wherever applicable)
All functional derivatives of carboxylic acids: IUPAC/ systematic nomenclature, industrial (wherever applicable) and laboratory methods of preparations
All functional derivatives of carboxylic acids: Physical properties and chemical reactions with emphasis on reaction mechanisms (arrow based), and stereochemistry (wherever applicable)
Organic chemistry: Unit 03
Protection and deprotection of groups
Introduction to protection and deprotection of functional groups
Two examples each for amino, hydroxyl, and carbonyl groups
The significance of these in syntheses should be explained
Organic chemistry: Unit 04
Aromaticity and chemistry of aromatic compounds
Concept of aromaticity, Huckel's rule and its use in determining the aromatic/ non-aromatic character of a compound
A brief coverage of structure of benzene
Detailed coverage of electrophilic and nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions
Reactivity and orientation in these reactions
Reactivity and orientation in mono-and disubstituted benzenes
Benzyne mechanism
Organic chemistry: Unit 05
Different aromatic classes of compounds
Aromatic hydrocarbons: IUPAC/ systematic nomenclature, industrial (wherever applicable) and laboratory methods of preparations
Aromatic hydrocarbons: Physical properties and chemical reactions with emphasis on reaction mechanisms (arrow based), and stereochemistry (wherever applicable)
Phenolic compounds: IUPAC/ systematic nomenclature, industrial (wherever applicable) and laboratory methods of preparations
Phenolic compounds: Physical properties and chemical reactions with emphasis on reaction mechanisms (arrow based), and stereochemistry (wherever applicable)
Aromatic and aliphatic amines: IUPAC/ systematic nomenclature, industrial (wherever applicable) and laboratory methods of preparations
Aromatic and aliphatic amines: Physical properties and chemical reactions with emphasis on reaction mechanisms (arrow based), and stereochemistry (wherever applicable)
Diazonium salts: IUPAC/ systematic nomenclature, industrial (wherever applicable) and laboratory methods of preparations
Diazonium salts: Physical properties and chemical reactions with emphasis on reaction mechanisms (arrow based), and stereochemistry (wherever applicable)
Aromatic nitro-compounds, aryl halides, and ethers: IUPAC/ systematic nomenclature, industrial (wherever applicable) and laboratory methods of preparations
Aromatic nitro-compounds, aryl halides, and ethers: Physical properties and chemical reactions with emphasis on reaction mechanisms (arrow based), and stereochemistry (wherever applicable)
Organic chemistry: Unit 06
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Syntheses and reactions with mechanisms of bi and tricyclic fused carbocyclic rings like naphthalene, anthracene, and phenanthrene
Organic chemistry: Unit 07
Carbonyl chemistry
Carbonyl chemistry involving group conversions and their reaction mechanisms along with stereochemistry wherever applicable
Wolff-Kishner reduction and Huang-Minlon modification
Reduction of aryl sulfonyl hydrazine/ hydrazones to alkanes
Bamford steven reaction
Dcc oxidation of alcohol
Michael addition/ 1,4-addition/ conjugate addition
Mannich condensation/ reaction
Robinson annulation
Stobbe condensation
Darzens glycidic ester synthesis
Beckmann rearrangement
Baeyer villiger rearrangement
Curtius, wolff, and lossen rearrangements
Willgerodt rearrangement
Pinacol-pinacolone rearrangement
Methylene transfer reactions
Use of diazomethane and sulphur ylides in the same
Mono-and dialkylations in 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds
Formation and use of enol ethers, enol acetates, and enamines as protective groups and in regiospecific alkylations
Organic chemistry: Unit 08
Heterocyclic chemistry
IUPAC nomenclature of heterocyclic rings (3-10 membered) containing O, S, and N atoms
Nomenclature of above rings containing mono-, di-, and multiple (same or different) heteroatoms should also be covered
Nomenclature of 2 and 3 fused rings containing mono-, di-, and multiple heteroatoms (same or different) should also be covered
Syntheses and reactions of three to six-membered rings in detail
Syntheses of five and six-membered rings containing mono-or any di-heteroatoms (O, S, and N)
Syntheses of quinoline, isoquinoline, benzoxazole, benzothiazole, and benzimidazole, benzotriazole, and benzothiazole
Organic chemistry: Unit 09
Bridged rings
Bridged ring systems and their nomenclature
C₈, C₉, C₁₁ bridged bicyclic alkanes
Chemistry of hexamine, morphan, biperiden, amantadine, diazabicyclo[2.2.2] octane
Organic chemistry: Unit 10
Kinetic and thermodynamic control
Kinetic and thermodynamic control of sulfonation, enolate anion formation and alkylation of enamine reactions
Organic chemistry: Unit 11
Stereochemistry
Chirality and asymmetry (introduction of the same to S, P, and N)
Definition and classification (different types of isomerism's)
Enantiomers, diastereomers
Enantiomerism and diastereomerism
Meso compounds and their optical activity
Stereochemistry in acyclic compounds
Newman projection formulae and their significance
Conformational analysis of n-butane
Absolute and relative configuration
Assigning r and s configuration based on cahn ingold and prelog system
Racemic mixture-its definition and resolution
Definitions of terms stereoselective, stereospecific, enantiomeric excess and diastereomeric excess
Stereochemistry in cyclic systems
Conformations of cyclohexane
Cis-trans relationship in cyclohexane
Prediction of stability of different conformations of 1, 2- 1,3-, and 1,4-disubstituted cyclohexanes
Effect of multiple substitutions on the stability of cyclohexane conformations
Chair conformations of cis-, and trans-decalins, perhydrophenanthrenes, and a tetracyclic steroidal nucleus
An introduction to atropisomerism
Organic chemistry: Unit 12
Carbohydrates
Definition and classification
D and L nomenclature in sugars
Different ways of drawing/ representing a sugar molecule (including cyclic structure), interconversion of these representations
Anomers and epimers
Mutarotation
Reactions of glucose
Chain extension and chain reduction of a sugar
Organic chemistry: Unit 13
Amino acids and proteins
Definition and classification
D and l amino acids, natural, essential, and non-essential amino acids
Denaturation, Strecker, Gabriel phthalimide methods for the preparation of amino acids
Peptide bond and its formation
Two protective groups each, for -nh2 and -cooh functionalities during protein synthesis
Sequencing of a protein by chemical and enzymatic methods
Organic chemistry: Unit 14
Pericyclic reactions
Concept of homo and lumo
Drawing of HOMO and LUMO of 1, 3-butadiene, allylic cation, radical and anion, and 1, 3, 5-hexatriene, Diel's-Alder and retro Diel's Alder reaction

Pharmaceutical chemistry-Pharmaceutical inorganic chemistry+

Pharmaceutical chemistry-Pharmaceutical inorganic chemistry: Unit 01
Pharmaceutical impurities
Impurities in pharmaceutical substances, sources, types, and effects of impurities
Limit tests for heavy metals like lead, iron, arsenic, mercury, and for chloride, and sulphate as per Indian pharmacopoeia (IP)
Pharmaceutical chemistry-Pharmaceutical inorganic chemistry: Unit 02
Monographs
Monograph and its importance, various tests included in monographs as per IP a study of the following compounds with respect to their methods of preparation, assay, and pharmaceutical uses of sodium citrate, calcium carbonate
Copper sulphate, light and heavy kaolin, ammonium chloride, and ferrous gluconate
Pharmaceutical chemistry-Pharmaceutical inorganic chemistry: Unit 03
Isotopes
Stable and radioactive, mode and rate of decay
Types and measurement of radioactivity
Radio pharmaceuticals and their diagnostic and therapeutic applications in pharmacy and medicine such as ¹²⁵I, ³²P, ⁵¹Cr, ⁶⁰Co, ⁵⁹Fe, ⁹⁹Tc-M
Radio contrast media, use of BaSO₄ in medicine
Pharmaceutical chemistry-Pharmaceutical inorganic chemistry: Unit 04
Dentifrices, desensitizing agents, and anticaries agents

Pharmaceutical chemistry-Medicinal chemistry+

Pharmaceutical chemistry-Medicinal chemistry: Unit 01
Therapeutic classes of drugs
General anesthetics
Local anesthetics
Diagnostic agents
Coagulants, anticoagulants, and plasma expanders
Antiseptics, disinfectants, sterilants, and astringents
Purgatives, laxatives, and antidiarrhoeal agents
Pharmaceutical chemistry-Medicinal chemistry: Unit 02
Various classes of therapeutic agents
Antimalarials: Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple and prototype molecules, drug metabolism)
Antimalarials: Therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Antiamoebic agents: Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple and prototype molecules, drug metabolism)
Antiamoebic agents: Therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Anthelmintic agents: Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple and prototype molecules, drug metabolism
Anthelmintic agents: Therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Antibacterial sulpha drugs (only): Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple and prototype molecules, drug metabolism
Antibacterial sulpha drugs (only): Therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Quinolone antibacterials: Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple and prototype molecules, drug metabolism
Quinolone antibacterials: Therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Antimycobacterial drugs: Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple and prototype molecules, drug metabolism
Antimycobacterial drugs: Therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Antifungal agents: Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple and prototype molecules, drug metabolism
Antifungal agents: Therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Antiviral agents including HIV and anti-HIV drugs: Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple and prototype molecules
Antiviral agents including HIV and anti-HIV drugs: Drug metabolism, therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Thyroid and antithyroid drugs: Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple and prototype molecules, drug metabolism
Thyroid and antithyroid drugs: Therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Antiallergic agents: Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple and prototype molecules, drug metabolism
Antiallergic agents: Therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Antiulcer agents and proton pump inhibitor: Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple and prototype molecules, drug metabolism
Antiulcer agents and proton pump inhibitor: Therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Hypoglycemic agents: Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple and prototype molecules, drug metabolism
Hypoglycemic agents: Therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Pharmaceutical chemistry-Medicinal chemistry: Unit 03
Different classes of therapeutic drugs
Sedative-hypnotics: Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple and prototype molecules, drug metabolism
Sedative-hypnotics: Therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Antiepileptic agents: Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple and prototype molecules, drug metabolism
Antiepileptic agents: Therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Neuroleptics: Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple and prototype molecules, drug metabolism
Neuroleptics: Therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Anti-anxiety drugs: Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple and prototype molecules, drug metabolism
Anti-anxiety drugs: Therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Antibiotics: Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple and prototype molecules, drug metabolism
Antibiotics: Therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Penicillins, cephalosporins and other beta-lactam antibiotics like imipenem and aztreonam: Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable
Penicillins, cephalosporins and other beta-lactam antibiotics like imipenem and aztreonam: Synthesis of simple and prototype molecules, drug metabolism, therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Beta-lactamase inhibitors such as clavulanic acid and sulbactam: Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable
Beta-lactamase inhibitors such as clavulanic acid and sulbactam: Synthesis of simple and prototype molecules, drug metabolism, therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Chloramphenicol: Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple and prototype molecules, drug metabolism
Chloramphenicol: Therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Tetracyclines: Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple and prototype molecules, drug metabolism
Tetracyclines: Therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Aminoglycoside antibiotics: Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple and prototype molecules, drug metabolism
Aminoglycoside antibiotics: Therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Macrolide antibiotics: Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple and prototype molecules, drug metabolism
Macrolide antibiotics: Therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Lincomycins: Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple and prototype molecules, drug metabolism
Lincomycins: Therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Polypeptide antibiotics: Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple and prototype molecules, drug metabolism
Polypeptide antibiotics: Therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Anticancer antibiotics: Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple and prototype molecules, drug metabolism
Anticancer antibiotics: Therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Steroids: Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple and prototype molecules, drug metabolism
Steroids: Therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Corticosteroids (gluco- and mineralocorticoids) and anti-inflammatory steroids: Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable
Corticosteroids (gluco- and mineralocorticoids) and anti-inflammatory steroids: Synthesis of simple and prototype molecules, drug metabolism, therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Sex steroids: Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple and prototype molecules, drug metabolism
Sex steroids: Therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Male and female contraceptive agents: Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple and prototype molecules, drug metabolism
Male and female contraceptive agents: Therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Anabolic steroids: Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple and prototype molecules, drug metabolism
Anabolic steroids: Therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Anticancer agents: Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple and prototype molecules, drug metabolism
Anticancer agents: Therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Narcotic (centrally acting) analgesics (analgetics): Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], biosynthesis, structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable
Narcotic (centrally acting) analgesics (analgetics): Synthesis of simple and prototype molecules, drug metabolism, therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Morphine and all its structural modifications (peripheral and nuclear): Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], biosynthesis, structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable
Morphine and all its structural modifications (peripheral and nuclear): Synthesis of simple and prototype molecules, drug metabolism, therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Narcotic agonists and antagonists (dual and pure): Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], biosynthesis, structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable
Narcotic agonists and antagonists (dual and pure): Synthesis of simple and prototype molecules, drug metabolism, therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Non-narcotic analgesics (NSAIDS): Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], biosynthesis, structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple and prototype molecules
Non-narcotic analgesics (NSAIDS): Drug metabolism, therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Difference between narcotic and non-narcotic agents: Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], biosynthesis, structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable
Difference between narcotic and non-narcotic agents: Synthesis of simple and prototype molecules, drug metabolism, therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Adrenergic drugs: Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], biosynthesis, structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple and prototype molecules, drug metabolism
Adrenergic drugs: Therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Neurotransmitters and their role: Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], biosynthesis, structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple and prototype molecules, drug metabolism
Neurotransmitters and their role: Therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
General and specific adrenergic agonists and antagonists (up to alpha-2 and beta-2 only): Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], biosynthesis, structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable
General and specific adrenergic agonists and antagonists (up to alpha-2 and beta-2 only): Synthesis of simple and prototype molecules, drug metabolism, therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Cholinergic agents: Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], biosynthesis, structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple and prototype molecules, drug metabolism
Cholinergic agents: Therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic agonists and antagonists (up to M2 and N2): Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], biosynthesis, structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable
Muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic agonists and antagonists (up to M2 and N2): Synthesis of simple and prototype molecules, drug metabolism, therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Neuronal (transmission) blockers: Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], biosynthesis, structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple and prototype molecules, drug metabolism
Neuronal (transmission) blockers: Therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Drugs used in neuromuscular disorders: Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], biosynthesis, structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple and prototype molecules
Drugs used in neuromuscular disorders: Drug metabolism, therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease: Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], biosynthesis, structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple and prototype molecules
Drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease: Drug metabolism, therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Central and peripheral muscle relaxants: Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], biosynthesis, structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple and prototype molecules
Central and peripheral muscle relaxants: Drug metabolism, therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Hypertensive, antihypertensive, and antianginal agents: Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], biosynthesis, structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable
Hypertensive, antihypertensive, and antianginal agents: Synthesis of simple and prototype molecules, drug metabolism, therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Diuretics: Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], biosynthesis, structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple and prototype molecules, drug metabolism
Diuretics: Therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Eicosanoids: Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], biosynthesis, structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple and prototype molecules, drug metabolism
Eicosanoids: Therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Prostaglandins, prostacyclins, and thromboxanes: Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], biosynthesis, structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple and prototype molecules
Prostaglandins, prostacyclins, and thromboxanes: Drug metabolism, therapeutic uses and side effects, drug resistance, wherever applicable
Their biochemical role, biosynthesis, and inhibitor
Pharmaceutical chemistry-Medicinal chemistry: Unit 04
Introduction to quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR)
Linear free energy relationship
Hammett's equation
Use of substituent constants such as π, σ, Es, and physicochemical parameters such as pKa, partition coefficient, Rm, chemical shifts, molar refractivity
Simple and valance molecular connectivity to indicate electronic effects, lipophilic effects, and steric effects
Introduction, methodology, advantages and disadvantages/ limitations of Hansch analysis
Pharmaceutical chemistry-Medicinal chemistry: Unit 05
Asymmetric synthesis
Chirality, chiral pool, sources of various naturally available chiral compounds
Eutomers, distomers, eudismic ratio
Enantioselectivity and enantiospecificity
Enantiomeric and diastereomeric excess
Prochiral molecules
Asymmetric synthesis of captopril and propranolol
Pharmaceutical chemistry-Medicinal chemistry: Unit 06
Combinatorial chemistry
Introduction and basic terminology
Databases and libraries
Solid phase synthesis technique
Types of supports and linkers, wang, rink, and dihydropyran derivatized linkers
Reactions involving these linkers
Manual parallel and automated parallel synthesis
Houghton's tea bag method, micromanipulation, recursive deconvolution
Mix and split method for the synthesis of tripeptides
Limitations of combinatorial synthesis
Introduction to throughput screening

Pharmaceutics+

Pharmaceutics: Unit 01
Pharmacy profession and introduction to pharmaceuticals
Pharmacy as a career, evaluation of pharmacy, earlier period middle to modern ages
Definition, importance of pharmaceuticals, areas concerned, scope of pharmaceutics, history and development of the profession of pharmacy, and pharmaceutical industry in India
A brief review of present Indian pharmacy
Industry in global perspective
Pharmaceutics: Unit 02
Introduction to dosage form
Definition of the drug
New drug and dosage form
The desirable properties of a dosage form, the need of dosage form
Ideas about the available type of dosage forms and new drug delivery system
Pharmaceutics: Unit 03
Sources of drug information
Introduction to pharmacopoeia with reference to IP, BP, USP, and international pharmacopeia
Study of structure/ features (index) general notice and compartment of monographs of excipients, drug and drug product
Other sources
Textbooks, journals, internet (drug information system, online database, patient/ consumer information and non-print material
Classification of information, primary, secondary, and tertiary
Nomenclature of the drug
Pharmaceutics: Unit 04
Allopathic dosage form
Merits/ demerits, importance, formulation development-vehicles/ excipients with examples for the dosage form: Liquid dosage form-monophasic liquid dosage form
Aromatic waters, syrup, elixir, linctus, lotion, liniment, glycerites, solutions, spirits, ENT preparations, mixtures, paints, mouthwash
Pharmaceutics: Unit 05
Crude extract
Infusion, decoction, maceration, percolation, tincture, and extract
Methods of preparations of dry, soft, and liquid extract
Pharmaceutics: Unit 06
Allergenic extract
Types of allergens, preparation of extract, testing, and standardization of extracts
Pharmaceutics: Unit 07
Biological products
Absorbable and non-absorbable material types, sutures, and ligatures, processing, manufacturing, sterilization, packing, QC tests of materials like catgut and nylon
Pharmaceutics: Unit 08
Pharmaceutical plant, location, layout
Plant location and layout of an industry
Various factors affecting locational aspects of chemical and pharmaceutical plants
The layout of plant building and importance of flow sheet, the difference between scientific process and technological process, the layout of various departments, equipment, and product layout v/s process layout
Pharmaceutics: Unit 09
Dosage form necessities and additives
Antioxidants, preservatives, coloring agents, flavoring agents, and diluting agents, emulsifying agents, suspending agents, ointment bases, solvents, and others
Pharmaceutics: Unit 10
Powders
Advantages and limitations as dosage form, manufacturing procedure and equipment, special care and problems in manufacturing powders, powders of IP, effervescent granules and salts
Pharmaceutics: Unit 11
Capsules
Hard gelatin capsules, shell formulation, and manufacturing, capsule sizes, storage, filing, cleaning process general formulation contents and evaluation
Soft gelatin capsules, shell formulation, formulation contents, filing, sealing, and storage
Microencapsulation, advantages, encapsulation materials, methods of microencapsulation, IP formulations
Pharmaceutics: Unit 12
Tablets
Types, ideal requirement, classification, granulation methods, general formulation, compression machines, different types of tooling's, difficulties in tableting, troubleshooting aspects, evaluation, sugar coating, compression coating, film coating
Problems in tablet coatings and their troubleshooting aspects
Ip formulations
Pharmaceutics: Unit 13
Parenterals-product requiring sterile packaging
Definition, types advantages and limitations, general formulation, vehicles, production procedure, production facilities, controls, tests, selected IP injections, sterile powders, implants, emulsions, suspensions
Pharmaceutics: Unit 14
Suspensions
Formulation of deflocculated and flocculated suspension, manufacturing procedure, evaluation methods, IP suspensions
Pharmaceutics: Unit 15
Emulsions
Types, emulsifying agents, general formulation, manufacturing procedure, evaluation methods, IP emulsions
Pharmaceutics: Unit 16
Suppositories
Ideal requirements, bases, manufacturing procedure, evaluation methods, IP products
Pharmaceutics: Unit 17
Semisolids
Definitions, bases, general formulation, manufacturing procedure, evaluation methods, IP products
Pharmaceutics: Unit 18
Liquids (solutions, syrups, elixirs, spirits, aromatic water, liquid for external uses)
Definition, types, general formulation, manufacturing procedure, evaluation methods, IP products
Pharmaceutics: Unit 19
Pharmaceutical aerosols
Definition, propellants, general formulation, manufacturing and packaging methods, pharmaceutical applications
Impacts of propellants on the environment
Pharmaceutics: Unit 20
Ophthalmic preparations
Requirement, formulation, methods of preparation, containers, evaluation, IP products
Pharmaceutics: Unit 21
Preformulations
Consideration of Importance, physical properties, physical forms, particle size, crystal forms, bulk control, solubility, wetting, flow cohesiveness, compressibility
Organoleptic properties and its effect on final product consideration of chemical properties, hydrolysis, oxidation, recemization, polymerization, isomerization, decarboxylation, enzymatic decomposition, formulation additives, stabilizers
Suspending and dispersing agents dyes, solid excipients etc and its effect on quality of finished product
Pharmaceutics: Unit 22
Stability of formulated products
Requirements, drug regulatory aspects, pharmaceutical products stability, shelf life, overages, containers, closures
Reaction rate and order, acid-base catalysis, destabilization, and accelerated stability testing
Pharmaceutics: Unit 23
Prolonged action pharmaceuticals
Benefits, limitations, oral products, terminology, drug elimination rate, types and construction of implants products, product evaluation, parenteral products, absorption and evaluation
Pharmaceutics: Unit 24
Novel drug delivery system
Critical fluid technology, transdermal drug delivery system, controlled drug delivery system, multiple emulsion, nanoparticles, targeted drug delivery system, aerosols, inhalation and new products reported etc
Pharmaceutics: Unit 25
GMP and validation
Introduction to GMP, QC, and QA
Concept and need of good manufacturing practice guidelines
Elements of GMP covering controls of area and processes, and product
Regulations related to gmp
Introduction of the validation process
Types of validation
The brief methodology of process, equipment, and instrument validation
Pharmaceutics: Unit 26
Packaging materials
Role and features of pharmaceutical packing materials
Glass, plastic, rubber, metal, and paper as pharmaceutical packaging material
General quality control of pharmaceutical packages
Primary, secondary, and tertiary packaging materials
Child resistant and pilfer-proof packaging
Pharmaceutics: Unit 27
Cosmetics
Formulation and preparation of dentifrices, hair creams, lipsticks, face powders, shaving preparations, skin creams, shampoos, hair dyes, depilatories, manicure preparations etc
Pharmaceutics: Unit 28
Pilot plant scale-up techniques
Need, organization, and layout, scale-up techniques for solid and liquid dosage forms
Technology transfer

Pharmacology+

Pharmacology: Unit 01
General pharmacology
Introduction to pharmacology-definition, scope, and source of drugs, dosage forms and routes of drug administration
Pharmacy codynamics-mechanism of drug action, receptors, classification, and drug-receptor interactions, combined effects of drugs, factors modifying drug actions
Pharmacokinetics-mechanism and principle of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs
Principles of basic and clinical pharmacokinetics
Pharmacogenetics
Adverse drug reactions
Discovery and development of new drugs-preclinical and clinical studies
Pharmacology: Unit 02
Nerohumoral transmission in autonomic and central nervous system
Neurohumoral transmission (Autonomic and somatic)
Neurohumoral transmission in the c.n.s with special emphasis on pharmacology of various neurotransmitters
Nitric oxide: Biosynthesis of nitric oxide and its physiological role
Therapeutic use of nitric oxide and nitric oxide donors
Clinical condition in which nitric oxide may play a part
Peptides and proteins as mediators: General principal of peptide pharmacology biosynthesis and regulation of peptides peptide antagonists. Protein and peptide as drugs
Pharmacology: Unit 03
Pharmacology of peripheral nervous system
Parasympathomimetics, parasympatholytics, sympathomimetics, sympatholytics, ganglionic stimulants and blockers
Neuromuscular blocking agents and skeletal muscle relaxants (peripheral)
Local anesthetic agents
Drugs used in myasthenia gravis
Pharmacology: Unit 04
Pharmacology of central nervous system
General anesthetics
Alcohols and disulfiram
Sedatives, hypnotics, and centrally acting muscle relaxants, psychopharmacological agents: Antipsychotics, antidepressants, antianxiety agents, anti-manics, and hallucinogens
Anti-epileptic drugs
Anti-parkinsonism drugs
Nootropics
Narcotic analgesics, drug addiction, drug abuse, tolerance, and dependence
Pharmacology: Unit 05
Pharmacology of cardiovascular system
Introduction of hemodynamics and electrophysiology of heart
Anti-hypertensive drugs, anti-anginal agents, anti-arrhythmic drugs
Drugs used in congestive heart failure
Anti-hyperlipidemic drugs
Drugs used in the therapy of shock
Haematinics, anticoagulants, and haemostatic agents
Fibrinolytics and antiplatelet drugs
Blood and plasma volume expanders
Pharmacology: Unit 06
Drugs acting on urinary system
Diuretics and anti-diuretics
Pharmacology: Unit 07
Drugs acting on respiratory system
Anti-asthmatic drugs, mucolytics and nasal decongestants, anti-tussives, and expectorants
Respiratory stimulants
Pharmacology: Unit 08
Pharmacology of endocrine system
Basic concepts in endocrine pharmacology
Hypothalamic and pituitary hormones
Thyroid hormones and antithyroid drugs, parathormone, calcitonin, and vitamin-D
Insulin, oral hypoglycemic agents, and glucagon
Acth and corticosteroids
Androgens and anabolic steroids
Estrogens, progesterone, and oral contraceptives
Drugs acting on the uterus
Pharmacology: Unit 09
Chemotherapy
General principles of chemotherapy
Sulphonamides and co-trimoxazole
Antibiotics-penicillins, cephalosporins, chloramphenicol, macrolides, quinolones, and fluoroquinolons
Tetracyclines
Aminoglycosides and miscellaneous antibiotics
Chemotherapy of tuberculosis, leprosy, fungal diseases, viral diseases, AIDS, protozoal diseases, worm infections, urinary tract infections and sexually transmitted diseases
Chemotherapy of malignancy
Pharmacology: Unit 10
Autacoids and their antagonists
Histamine, 5-HT and their agonsists, and antagonists
Prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes
pentagastrin, cholecystokinin, angiotensin, bradykinin and substance P., analgesic, anti-pyretic, anti-inflammatory and anti-gout drugs
Pharmacology: Unit 11
Pharmacology of drug acting on the gastrointestinal tract
Antacids, anti-secretary, and antiulcer drugs
Laxatives and antidiarrheal drugs
Appetite stimulants and suppressants
Digestants and carminatives
Emetics and anti-emetics
Pharmacology: Unit 12
Chronopharmacology
Definition of rhythm and cycles
Biological clocks and their significance leading to chronotherapy
Pharmacology: Unit 13
Immnopharmacology
Immunostimulants and immunosuppressants
Pharmacology: Unit 14
Vitamins and minerals
Vitamin deficiency diseases and their management
Role of minerals in health and diseases
Pharmacology: Unit 15
Principles of toxicology
Definition of poison
General principles of treatment of poisoning
Treatment of poisoning due to heavy metals, insecticides, opioids, and other addict forming drugs
Study of acute, sub acute, and chronic toxicity as per OECD guidelines (guidelines 420, 423, 425, 407, 408, 451/ 452; only names and significance, detailed procedures and minute details are not expected)

Pharmacognosy+

Pharmacognosy: Unit 01
Introductory pharmacognosy
Historical development, modern concept, and scope of pharmacognosy
The significance of pharmacognosy in various systems of medicine practiced in India Viz: Ayurveda, Unani, Homeopathic and Siddha
Pharmacognosy: Unit 02
Classification of crude drugs
Based on alphabetical, morphological, pharmacological, chemical, taxonomical, and chemotaxonomic methods: Organized and unorganized drugs-official and unofficial drugs
Plants, animals, and minerals: Marine products-plant tissue culture
Pharmacognosy: Unit 03
Factors influencing quality of crude drugs
Exogenous factors: Temperature, rainfall, daylight, altitude, and soil
Endogenous factors: Mutation, polyploidy, and hybridization in medicinal plants
Production factors including collection, drying, storage, and transport methods
Study of morphological and histological characters of crude drugs, ergastic cell inclusions, anatomical structures of both monocot and dicot stems, leaves and roots: Barks, fruits, and seeds
Pharmacognosy: Unit 04
Techniques in microscopy
Details of mountants, clearing agents, chemomicroscopic (microchemical) reagents
Pharmacognosy: Unit 05
Introduction to phytoconstituents
Definition, classification, chemical tests, and pharmaceutical importance of: Carbohydrates and their derivatives, fats and proteins, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, tannins, resins, lipids and volatile oils
Pharmacognosy: Unit 06
Principles of plant classification
Diagnostic features and medicinal significance of important plants with special reference to: Algae-rhodophyceae (agar, alginic acid, diatoms). Fungi-ergot, yeast, and penicillium. Gymnosperm-pinaceae (turpentine, colophony), gnetaceae (ephedra)
Diagnostic features and medicinal significance of important plants with special reference to: Angiosperm-apocynaceae, asteraceae, lamiaceae, rubiaceae, rutaceae, solanaceae, scrophulariaceae, leguminosae, papaveraceae, acanthaceae and apiaceae
Diagnostic features and medicinal significance of important plants with special reference to: Pteridophytes-male fern
Pharmacognosy: Unit 07
Pharmaceutical aids
Biological sources, chemical constituents, adulterants, and uses of: Starches, acacia gum, tragacanth, sterculia, guar gum, pectin, arachis oil, castor oil, sesame oil, cottonseed oil, olive oil, cotton, silk, wool, regenerated fibers, asbestos, kaolin
Biological sources, chemical constituents, adulterants, and uses of: Prepared chalk, kieselguhr
Pharmacognosy: Unit 08
Animal products
Biological sources, chemical constituents, adulterants, and uses of: Shellac, cochineal, cantharides, woolfat, lard, beeswax, honey, musk, lanolin, gelatin
Pharmacognosy: Unit 09
Plant products
Introduction to plant bitters, sweeteners, nutraceuticals, cosmeceuticals, and photosensitizing agents
Pharmacognosy: Unit 10
Toxic drugs
Study of allergens, hallucinogens, narcotics
Pharmacognosy: Unit 11
Enzymes
Biological sources, preparation, characters, and uses of: Diastase, papain bromelain, ficin, yeast, pancreatin, urokinase, pepsin, trypsin, penicillinase, hyaluronidase and streptokinase
Pharmacognosy: Unit 12
Natural pesticides and insecticides
Introduction to herbicides, fungicides, fumigants and rodenticides tobacco, pyrethrum, and neem
Pharmacognosy: Unit 13
Adulteration and evaluation of crude drugs
Different methods of adulteration: Evaluation of drugs by organoleptic, microscopic, physical, chemical, and biological methods
Deterioration of herbal drugs by insects
Pharmacognosy: Unit 14
Quantitative microscopy
Definition and determination of stomatal index, stomatal number, palisade ratio, vein islet number, vein termination number, lycopodium spore method
Micrometers and measurement of microscopic characters
Pharmacognosy: Unit 15
Biogenetic pathways
Formation of primary and secondary metabolites
Study of Calvin cycle, TCA cycle, shikimic acid pathway, Embden-Mayerhoff pathway, acetate hypothesis, isoprenoid pathway
Biosynthesis of carbohydrates, lipids, and volatile oils
Pharmacognosy: Unit 16
Carbohydrates and lipids
Biological sources, salient morphological features, chemical constituents, and uses of: Plantago, bael, chaulmoogra oil, neem oil, shark liver oil, cod liver oil, guggul lipids
Pharmacognosy: Unit 17
Tannins
Biological sources, morphology, chemical constituents, chemical test, and uses of: Pale catechu, black catechu, nutgalls, terminalia belerica, terminalia chebula, terminalia arjuna
Pharmacognosy: Unit 18
Volatile oils
Biological sources, morphology, chemical constituents, adulterants, and uses of: Black pepper, turpentine, mentha, coriander, cardamom, cinnamon, cassia, lemon peel, orange peel, lemongrass, citronella, cumin, caraway, dill, spearmint, clove, anise
Biological sources, morphology, chemical constituents, adulterants, and uses of: Star anise, fennel, nutmeg, eucalyptus, chenopodium, ajowan, sandalwood
Pharmacognosy: Unit 19
Resinous drugs
Classification, formation, sources, chemical constituents, identification test, adulterants, and uses of: Benzoin, peru balsam, tolu balsam, colophony, myrrh, asafoetida, jalap, colocynth, ginger, turmeric, capsicum, cannabis, podophyllum
Pharmacognosy: Unit 20
Glycosides
Nature and classification
Biological sources, morphology, chemical constituents, adulterants, and uses of: Digitalis, strophanthus, squill, thevetia, oleander, cascara, aloe, rhubarb, senna, quassia, dioscorea, quillaia, glycyrrhiza, ginseng, gentian, wild cherry, withania
Biological sources, morphology, chemical constituents, adulterants, and uses of: Bitter almond
Biosynthesis of cardiac and anthraquinone glycosides
Pharmacognosy: Unit 21
Alkaloids
Nature, classification, biological sources, morphology, chemical constituents, adulterants, and uses of: Areca nut, belladonna, hyoscymous, stramonium, duboisea, coca, coffee, tea, cinchona, opium, ipecac, nux vomica, ergot, rauwolfia, vinca, kurchi
Nature, classification, biological sources, morphology, chemical constituents, adulterants, and uses of: Ephedra, colchicum, vasaca, pilocarpus, aconite, solanum xanthocarpum
Biosynthesis of tropane, cinchona, and opium alkaloids
Pharmacognosy: Unit 22
Extraction and isolation techniques
General methods used for the extraction, isolation, and identification of alkaloids, lipids, glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, volatile oils and resins
Application of column, paper, and thin layer chromatographic techniques, for the isolation of phytopharmaceuticals
Pharmacognosy: Unit 23
Phytopharmaceuticals
Isolation, identification, and estimation of: Caffeine, eugenol, digoxin, piperine, tannic acid, diosgenin, hesperidin, berberine, calcium sennosides, rutin, glycyrrhizin, menthol, ephedrine, quinine, andrographolides and guggul lipids
Pharmacognosy: Unit 24
Quality control and standardization of herbal drugs
Quality control of herbal drugs as per WHO, AYUSH, and pharmacopoeial guidelines-extractive values, ash values, chromatographic techniques (TLC, HPTLC, and HPLC) for determination of chromatographic markers
Determination of heavy metals, insecticides, pesticides, and microbial load in herbal preparations
Pharmacognosy: Unit 25
Herbal formulations
Principals involved in Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, Chinese and Homeopathic systems of medicines
Preparation of ayurvedic formulations like aristas, asava, ghutika, tailia, churna, avaleha, ghrita, and bhasmas: Unani formulations like majooms, safoofs
Determination of alcohol contents in arishtas and asavas
Pharmacognosy: Unit 26
Worldwide trade of crude drugs and volatile oils
Study of drugs having high commercial value and their regulations pertaining to trade
Pharmacognosy: Unit 27
Herbal cosmetics
Importance of herbals as shampoos (soapnut), conditioners, and hair darkeners, (amla, henna, hibiscus, tea), skin care (aloe, turmeric, lemon peel, vetiver)
Pharmacognosy: Unit 28
Traditional herbal drugs
Common names, sources, morphology, active constituents and uses (traditional, folklore), pharmacological, and clinical uses of: Punarnava (boerhaviadiffusa), shankhpushpi (convolvulus microphylla), lehsun (allium sativum), guggul (commiphora mukul)
Common names, sources, morphology, active constituents and uses (traditional, folklore), pharmacological, and clinical uses of: Kalmegh (andrographis peniculata), tulsi (ocimum sanctum), valerian (valerian officinalis), artemisia (artemisia annua)
Common names, sources, morphology, active constituents and uses (traditional, folklore), pharmacological, and clinical uses of: Chirata (swertia chirata), Ashoka (saraca indica)
Pharmacognosy: Unit 29
Plants based industries and research institutes in India
Knowledge about the herbal products being manufactured by premier herbal industries and thrust area of the institutes involved in plant research
Pharmacognosy: Unit 30
Patents
Indian and International patent laws, proposed amendments as applicable to herbal/ natural products and processes: Intellectual property rights with special reference to phytoconstituents
Pharmacognosy: Unit 31
Ayurvedic system of medicine
Theory, basic concept, diagnosis, various branches of treatment in ayurveda, types of the drug formulation in Ayurveda and important Ayurvedic drugs and their uses, formulation of asavas, arishtas, watika, churna, tailas, ghruta, lep
Pharmacognosy: Unit 32
Homeopathic system of medicine
Theory, basic concept, diagnosis, treatment, source of homeopathic medicines and important homeopathic drugs, and their uses

Pharmaceutical analysis+

Pharmaceutical analysis: Unit 01
Importance of quality control in pharmacy
Pharmaceutical analysis: Unit 02
Acid-base titrations
Definitions of acids and bases according to Arrhenius, and Lewis theory
Definitions of normality, molarity, molality, and equivalent weight
Primary and secondary standards with examples, and differences between them
Standardization of strong acids and bases using primary, and secondary standards
Preparation of standard solutions of and calculations of equivalent weights of oxalic acid, potassium acid phthalate, calcium chloride dehydrate, and sodium carbonate
Calculation of factors involved in standardization of sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, and oxalic acid
Direct, back, and differential titrations
Application of direct and back titrations to preparations like boric acid, and borax in a mixture, ammoniated mercury, milk of magnesia, and zinc oxide ointment
Law of mass action, acid-base equilibria, pH scale, pH and hydronium ion concentrations in aqueous systems, calculations of pH for weak acids and weak bases
Use and applications of ph meter
Hydrolysis of salts
Strengths of acids and bases, dissociation constant
Theory of acid-base indicators
Neutralization (titration) curves
Definition, different types of buffers (chemical and biological), and their composition
Buffer capacity, buffered isotonic solutions
Calculations involving preparation of various buffer capacity solutions
Biological and pharmaceutical applications of buffers
Pharmaceutical analysis: Unit 03
Non-aqueous titrations
Acid-base definitions according to Lowry-Bronsted, Lewis and Arrhenius concept
Factors affecting strengths of acids and bases
Intrinsic structure and surrounding environment
Protophilic, protogenic, amphiprotic, and aprotic solvents
Acid-base equilibria in non-aqueous media
Titrants and indicators used for the assay of acidic, and basic substances
Preparation of perchloric acid, formation of onium ion
Assay of 1⁰, 2⁰, 3⁰ amines and amine hydrochlorides using perchloric acid, and the reactions involved in it
Standardization of sodium ethoxide solution
Assay of phenols and phenobarbitone
General applications of non-aqueous titrations
Pharmaceutical analysis: Unit 04
Oxidation-reduction titrations
Definition of oxidation, reduction, oxidizing, and reducing agent
Equivalent weight, the concept of half reactions. Systematic balancing of half reactions with respect to: a) Oxalic acid-KMnO₄, b) FeSO₄-ceric nitrate, c) I2-sodium thiosulphate solution titrations
Calculation of equivalent weight of oxalic acid, KMnO₄, FeSO₄, permanganate and I2 from half-reactions
Calculation of factors for titrations: (a) Redox titrations-KMnO₄ as a self indicator, it's preparation, standardization, and use in the assay of ferrous gluconate tablets, H₂O₂, and NaNO₂ solution
Calculation of factors for titrations: (b) Iodimetric and iodometric titrations. Definitions and difference between iodimetry and iodometry. Preparation, standardization of iodine solution. Assay of ascorbic acid and sulphur ointment by iodimetry
Calculation of factors for titrations: (b) Assay of copper sulphate and ferric chloride by iodometry
Calculation of factors for titrations: (c) Bromometric titrations
Calculation of factors for titrations: (d) Iodate titrations. Definition. Preparation, standardization and use of KIO₃ in the assay of ascorbic acid and KI
Calculation of factors for titrations: (e) Cerimetric titrations. Preparation, standardization and use of ceric solutions in the assay of paracetamol tablets. Its advantages over permanganate solutions
Calculation of factors for titrations: (f) Bromine titrations. Preparation, standardization and use of bromine solution in the assay of phenol and isoniazid tablets
Calculation of factors for titrations: (g) Potassium dichromate titrations. Preparation, standardization and use of potassium dichromate solution in the assay of ferrous ammonium sulphate
Pharmaceutical analysis: Unit 05
Precipitation titrations
The principle of solubility product and sparingly soluble salts
Titrants and indicators used in Mohr's, Volhard's, and Fajan's methods
Preparation and standardization of silver nitrate, and ammonium thiocyanate solutions
Assay of sodium chloride by Mohr's method, use of nitrobenzene in the assay of halides, ammonium chloride, and thiourea by Volhard's method
Calculation of factors in argentometric titrations
Titration curve method
General applications of precipitation titrations
Pharmaceutical analysis: Unit 06
Complexometric titrations
Difference between double salts and coordinate compounds
Definitions of coordination number of metal ions, ligands-uni-, bi-, and multidentate
Complexing, chelating, and sequestering agents with respective examples
Structure of complexes of platinum with ammonia
Ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA) as a multidentate ligand in complexometry
Coordinate compounds of EDTA with bi-, tri-, and tetravalent metal ions
Stability of complexes and factors affecting it, use of buffers in EDTA titrations
Selective analysis of ions based on pH adjustments, use of masking, and demasking agents, pM or metal ion indicators
Standardization of EDTA solution, titration curves, and examples of assays carried out by direct and back titrations and by replacement of one complex by the other
Applications of complexometry in the assays of calcium gluconate, milk of magnesia, zinc undecenoate ointment, and aluminium hydroxide gel
Assay of naf by indirect titration
Pharmaceutical analysis: Unit 07
Gravimetry
Principles of gravimetry
Factors affecting precipitation, formation, and properties of the precipitate
Colloidal state
Impurities in the precipitate, conditions of precipitation
Precipitation from homogenous solutions, washing, drying, and ignition of the precipitate
Experimental techniques of drying and ignition
Applications of gravimetry in pharmacy
Pharmaceutical analysis: Unit 08
Extraction techniques
Liquid-liquid extraction, separation of mixtures by extraction
Distribution law
Successive and multiple extraction (Craig method), continuous counter-current extraction
Effect of temperature and ph on extraction
Inert solute, associate ion pair formation, emulsion problem in extractions
Applications in pharmacy
Pharmaceutical analysis: Unit 09
Potentiometry
Theory, ion-selective electrodes, measurement of potential, red-ox titration curve, pH measurement, the relation of pH to potential
Applications in pharmacy
Pharmaceutical analysis: Unit 10
Miscellaneous methods of analysis
Diazotization titrations
Kjeldahl nitrogen estimation
Karl Fischer titrations
Liquid gelenicals
Oxygen flask determination of alcohol content in liquid gelenicals
Oxygen flask combustion method
Pharmaceutical analysis: Unit 11
Calibration
Calibration of instruments
Pharmaceutical analysis: Unit 12
General principles of spectroscopy
Wave-particle duality, wave properties, particulate properties
Line and band spectrum
Electromagnetic spectrum
Absorption and emission spectroscopy
Understanding of terms such as absorbance, transmittance, absorptivities, molar absorptivity, E 1cm 1%, λmax, the effect of solvent and pH on λmax
Pharmaceutical analysis: Unit 13
Ultraviolet-visible spectrometry
Different electronic transitions
Auxochromes and their effects, auxochromic, bathochromic, and hypsochromic shifts (red and blue shifts)
Beer-Lambert law, its derivation, deviations in Beer's law
Single and double beam spectrophotometers covering sources of radiations, different monochromators, detectors such as barrier cell, photocell, photomultiplier tube
Photodiode array detector
Applications of this technique in qualitative and quantitative estimations giving emphasis on problem-solving
Fieser-woodward rules for calculations of theoretical λmax values
Pharmaceutical analysis: Unit 14
Spectrofluorimetry
Principle, definitions, and types of luminescence
Mechanism of fluorescence and phosphorescence
Singlet and triplet states, and intersystem crossing
Fluorescence yield and factors affecting it
Quenching of fluorescence and fluorescence quenchers
Structure and fluorescence
A brief discussion of instrumentation
Applications of fluorimetry in pharmacy
Pharmaceutical analysis: Unit 15
Flame photometry and atomic absorption spectrometry
Principle and instrumentation with emphasis on working, and importance of different components
Temperature, flame absorption, and emission profiles
Interferences and their avoidance
Quantitative estimations and applications
Pharmaceutical analysis: Unit 16
Infrared spectrometry
Infrared region in em spectrum
The principle, different stretching and bending vibrations
Components (and their working) of a dispersive instrument
Fourier transform (FT) technique, FT instruments and their comparison with dispersive instruments
Sample handling techniques
Functional group and fingerprint regions in the spectrum
Functional groups identification and their use in the characterization of compounds
Problems based on the identification of functional groups from spectra of unknown compounds
Pharmaceutical analysis: Unit 17
Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry
The principle involved in the technique
Knowledge about fundamental terms involved such as quantized absorption, flipping of nucleus, spin number, magnetic moment, magnetogyric ratio, relaxation, etc
Equations relating these terms to the frequency of radiation and magnetic field (without derivation of the equations)
Types of relaxation processes
Low and high-resolution instruments
A brief discussion on the low-resolution instrumentation (60 MHz)
Quantitative knowledge of the relationship between MHz and magnetic field
An introduction to superconductivity magnets
Solvents and reference standards used
Setting up of NMR scale
Sample preparation
Shielding and deshielding of a proton, and its effect on chemical shifts
Discussion on and importance of equivalent and non equivalent protons (number of signals), chemical shifts (position of signal) and their calculation from the spectrum, chemical shifts of different H's, splitting (multiplicity) of a signal
Coupling constants (J values), integration (area under the signal)
Importance of these terms in identification (or confirmation) of different functional groups
Significance and contribution of j value in stereochemistry
Prediction (expected theoretical values) of chemical shifts and multiplicities for all protons from simple structures containing up to 12-15 carbons
An introduction to ft-technique and its significance in 13c-nmr spectrometry
Pharmaceutical analysis: Unit 18
Mass spectrometry
Principle
Low and high-resolution instruments
Components and importance of each in brief
Different types of mass spectrometric techniques
Brief knowledge of chemical ionization mass spectrometry
Calculations of hydrogen deficiency index (HDI) or unsaturation index (UI)
Base or parent peak, molecular ion, M + 1, M + 2 peaks
Calculations of molecular weight based on m +1 and m + 2 peaks
Formation of molecular ion and further fragmentation
Rearrangements in mass spectrometry
Major modes of fragmentations of hydrocarbons, hydroxyl compounds, halogen compounds, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and amines
Introduction (only) to recent advances in MS
Pharmaceutical analysis: Unit 19
Polarography
Principle and instrumentation
IIkovich equation (no derivation) and its importance
Dropping mercury electrode (DME), saturated calomel electrode
Liquid-liquid junction potential, polarographic cell
Explanation of origin of the S-shaped C-V curve
Applications of this technique
Amperometric titrations, principles, instrumentation, and applications
Pharmaceutical analysis: Unit 20
Nephelometry and turbidimetry
Principles, Tyndall effect
Duboscq turbidimeter
Eel's nephelometer
Applications
Pharmaceutical analysis: Unit 21
Chromatography
Principle, rate and plate theory, Van Deemter equation and the parameters affecting separation/ band broadening
Classification of chromatography, retention factor
A detailed study of thin layer chromatography (TLC), preparative TLC, paper chromatography (PC), column chromatography, gas chromatography (GC/ GLC)
Qualitative and quantitative applications of the above techniques
An introduction to high performance TLC (HPTLC), comparison of TLC, and HPTLC
brief introduction to high pressure/ performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
Pharmaceutical analysis: Unit 22
Miscellaneous
An introduction to electrophoresis
An introduction to lasers and masers
Statistical treatment to experimental data
Sampling techniques and applications in pharmaceutical industry

Biochemistry+

Biochemistry: Unit 01
Cell
Revision of ultra structure of the cell, functions of various cellular constituents
Applications of biochemical principles to the pharmacy
Biochemistry: Unit 02
Carbohydrates
Types of carbohydrates, their functions, digestion, and absorption
Aerobic and anaerobic oxidation with energetics
Glycogenesis, glycogenolysis, and gluconeogenesis
Hexose monophosphate shunt (HMP shunt)
Diseases associated with carbohydrate metabolism
Biochemistry: Unit 03
Proteins
Different types of proteins
Their functions, digestion, and absorption
Denaturation and its effect on biological activity
Renaturation of proteins
Urea formation, urea cycle, creatinine formation
Transamination and deamination
Proteins as enzymes
Biochemistry: Unit 04
Lipids
Different types of lipids
Their functions, digestion, absorption, and metabolism
Beta-oxidation of fatty acids with energetics
Biosynthesis of cholesterol (from acetate), adrenocorticoids, androgens, progesterone, estrogens, and bile acids/ salts
Ketone bodies, their formation, and biochemical significance
Diseases associated with lipid metabolism
Biochemistry: Unit 05
Vitamins
Definition
Classification, structures (except B12) biochemical role, sources, daily requirements, and deficiency symptoms
Vitamins as cofactors in biochemical reactions
Biochemistry: Unit 06
Biological oxidations and reductions
Oxidation-reduction systems in the body their role
Oxidative phosphorylation and electron transport chain
Cytochromes and inhibitors of the same
Biochemistry: Unit 07
Enzymes
Classification and their various roles
Enzyme cofactors
Enzyme kinetics
Michaelis-Menten equation along with its transformations
Double reciprocal plot
Factors affecting enzyme action
Enzyme inhibition, competitive and non-competitive, and kinetics
Biochemistry: Unit 08
Nucleic acids
Different types of nucleic acids (NAs) and their composition
Purine and pyrimidine bases, sugars, and phosphoric acid
Nucleosides and nucleotides
Formation of NAs and their backbone
Different ways of representing dna and rna molecules
Physico-chemical properties of nas
Their stability in acidic and basic solutions
Isolation, purification, and identification, buoyant density, sedimentation coefficient, and Svedberg constant of NAs
De-novo biosynthesis of nas
DNA and the Watson-Crick model, and its features
Dna as the bearer of genetic information
The central dogma of molecular genetics and the processes defined in the same
Replication of dna
Different types of rnas with their special features and functions
Minor or rare bases
Transcription and translation
Different post-translational modifications of proteins
Triplet codon and the codon dictionary
Mutations
An introduction to different types of mutations
Their nature and repair
Biochemistry: Unit 09
Hereditary diseases
Elliptocytosis, spherocytosis, HNPCC, diabetes insipidus

Biotechnology+

Biotechnology: Unit 01
Plant cell and tissue culture
Structure of plant cell, DNA, genes, and chromosomes
Cell and tissue culture: (a) Requirements, (b) callus culture, suspension culture, batch culture, (c) the concept of somatic hybridization, somatic embryogenesis
Processes and applications: (a) Isolation and immobilization of enzymes and plant cells and application, (b) protoplast and cell fusion, (c) germplasm conservation, (d) production of secondary metabolites by plant tissue culture
Processes and applications: (e) Gene transfer techniques
Biotechnology: Unit 02
Animal cell culture
Introduction to animal cell culture, medium used in ATC
Use of FCS, primary culture, secondary culture, cell line
Cloning: Concept and application with technical hurdles
Transgenic animals as a source of food, organs, and tissues, concept of xenotransplant
Biotechnology: Unit 03
Fermentation technology and industrial microbiology
Fermentation as a biochemical process, types of fermentation
Fermenter-working and construction, accessory components, modification
Fermentation monitoring and in situ recovery of products
Biotechnology: Unit 04
Recombinant DNA technology
Basic concepts: (a) Introduction, (b) role of a restriction endonuclease, DNA ligase, DNA polymerase, reverse transcriptase
Biotechnology: Unit 05
Process and applications
Constructing recombinant DNA molecules:(a) DNA clones sources of DNA for cloning, (b) DNA vectors, role of expression vectors, (c) host cell for recombinant work, (d) method for screening and selecting transformants, (e) expression of foreign genes
Constructing recombinant DNA molecules: (f) uses of recombinant DNA
PCR and applications: Human gene therapy concept and applications
Drug delivery systems in gene therapy
Biotechnology: Unit 06
Biotechnology derived products
Sources and upstream processing: (a) Introduction, (b) Escherichia coli as a source of recombinant, therapeutic protein, (c) additional production systems: Yeast, fungal production systems, transgenic animals, transgenic plants, insects cell-based systems
Sources and upstream processing: (c) Upstream processing
Downstream processing: (a) Product analysis-introduction, protein-based contaminant, removal of an altered form of the protein of interest from the product stream, (b) determination of protein concentration
Immunological approaches to detection of contaminant, endotoxin and other pyrogenic contaminants: (a) Pyrogen detection, (b) DNA as a contaminant, (c) microbial and viral contaminant, (d) viral assays, (e) miscellaneous contaminants
Immunological approaches to detection of contaminant, endotoxin and other pyrogenic contaminants: (f) Validation studies
Production and purification of recombinant proteins like, insulin, growth hormones, somatostatin, interferons, only examples of recombinant blood products

Microbiology+

Microbiology: Unit 01
Introduction to microbiology
Scope and application to pharmacy field
Whittaker's five kingdom concept, historical development-biogenesis vs. abiogenesis, germ theory of fermentation, germ theory of disease, the contribution of Leeuwenhoek, Robert Koch, Jenner, Louis Pasteur and Ehrlich
Microbiology: Unit 02
Microscopy and staining technique
The principle, ray diagram, construction, working, and applications of light compound, dark field, phase contrast, fluorescence and electron microscope
The concept of resolving power, magnification power, numerical aperture and angular aperture, and working distance
The principle application of oil immersion microscopy
Theory of staining, principle and technique of staining procedure-monochrome, gram, acid-fast, negative, capsule, endospore
Microbiology: Unit 03
Biology of microorganisms
Cultural characteristics, pure culture techniques
Bacteria-morphology and fine structure of bacteria, nutritional requirement and type of culture media, growth and growth curve of bacteria, physical condition for growth, measurement of bacterial growth (counting methods), reproduction in bacteria
Genetic exchange-transformation, conjugation, and transduction, development of drug resistance by recombination and mutation, preservation of bacterial culture
Biochemical properties (sugar fermentation and IMVIC test)
Pathogenesis of staphylococcus, mycobacterium
Salmonella introductory study of disease-causing rickettsia, the importance of actinomycetes in antibiotic production
Microbiology: Unit 04
Fungi and viruses
Fungi: Introduction, general characteristics, morphology, the industrial and medical significance of saccharomyces cerevisae, penicillium and aspergillus, candida albicans, epidermophyton, and trichophyta
Viruses: Introduction, structure, and general properties bacteriophages-lytic and lysogenic cycle, epidemiological uses of bacteriophages, human viruses-cultivation and multiplication virus-host cell interaction, pathogenesis of HIV and prions
Viruses: Types of tumor viruses
Microbiology: Unit 05
Aseptic technique
The omnipresence of microorganisms, the importance of asepsis, sources of contamination and methods of prevention, principle, construction, and working of laminar airflow bench
Microbiology: Unit 06
Sterilization and disinfection
Concept and classification, principle, and methods of sterilization, mechanisms of cell injury
Construction working and applications of moist heat and dry heat sterilizer, gamma radiation sterilizer, filtration sterilizer
Indicators of sterilization, microbial death, kinetic terms-D value, Z value
Terminology of chemical antimicrobial agents, chemical classification of different disinfectants, characteristics of ideal disinfectants, factors affecting the action of disinfectants, evaluation methods (RW coefficient), Kelsey Sykes test
Chick martin test
Microbiology: Unit 07
Microbial spoilage
Types of spoilage, factors affecting spoilage of pharmaceutical products
Microbiology: Unit 08
Vaccines and sera
Manufacturing (seed lot system) and quality control of bacterial vaccines and toxoids (tetanus, TAB, cholera, BCG, DPT), viral vaccine (Polio-salk sabin, rabies, MMR, hepatitis, chickenpox, influenza), antisera (diphtheria, tetanus)
Antiviral antisera (rabies)
Preparation of allergenic extracts and diagnostics
Microbiology: Unit 09
Microbial assay
Importance, general methods of assay of antibiotics (cup and plate method, paper disc method, turbidometry, dilution method), methods for fungicidal and antiviral compounds, assay, microbial limit tests

Pathophysiology+

Pathophysiology: Unit 01
Basic principles of cell injury and adaptation
Causes, pathogenesis, and morphology of cell injury, apoptosis, and necrosis
Pathophysiology: Unit 02
Basic mechanisms of inflammation and repair
Pathogeneses of inflammation
Chemical mediators in inflammation
Pathogenesis of chronic inflammation
Repair of wounds in the skin, factors influencing healing of wounds
Pathophysiology: Unit 03
Disorders of fluid, electrolyte and acid-base balance
Pathophysiology: Unit 04
Disorders of homeostasis
White blood cells, lymphoid tissues, and red blood cells related diseases
Pathophysiology: Unit 05
Immunopathology including amyloidosis
Host parasite relationship: Normal microbial flora of human body, infection vs. disease, pathogenicity vs. virulence, Koch and Rivers Postulates, reservoir of infection-sources of infection, portals of entry, portals of exit, vectors of infection
Host parasite relationship: Communicability of disease, recognized symptoms of microbial disease, classification of immunity
External defense mechanism of host: Skin, mucus membrane, chemical secretions, naturally occurring microbial flora
Internal defense mechanism: Inflammation, fever, natural killer cells, phagocytic cells, soluble mediators-complement lymphokines, interferons
Immune response: Specific immunity and immune response. Humoral immunity antibody response, mediators of humoral immunity, basic structure of antibody, antibody classes, and functions, maturation of immune response, immunologic memory
Immune response: Antigens-specificity and immunogenicity, natural vs. artificial antigens, soluble, cellular antigens, thymus independent antigen, adjuvant
Immune response: Hypersensitivity and its types-cellular immunity: Transplantation immunity, cellular immunity to viruses, implications of T-cell response. Acquisition of specific immunity: Natural vs. passive acquisition. Mechanism of autoimmunity
Immune response: Hypersensitivity and its types-cellular immunity: Classification of autoimmune diseases in man. Transplantation and allograft reactions, mechanism of rejection of allograft. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
Pathophysiology: Unit 06
Infectious diseases
Hepatitis-infective hepatitis
Sexually transmitted diseases (syphilis, gonorrhea, HIV)
Pneumonia, typhoid, urinary tract infections
Tuberculosis
Leprosy
Malaria
Dysentery (bacterial and amoebic)
Pathophysiology: Unit 07
Neoplastic diseases
Disturbances of growth of cells
General biology of tumors, differences between benign and malignant tumors
Classification of tumors
Historical diagnosis of malignancy
Etiology and pathogenesis of cancer
Invasions, metastasis, patterns of spread of cancer
Environmental carcinogenesis
Pathophysiology: Unit 08
Pathophysiology of common diseases
Parkinsonism
Schizophrenia
Depression and mania stroke (ischemic and hemorrhage)
Hypertension
Angina
Myocardial infarction, CCF
Atherosclerosis
Diabetes mellitus
Peptic ulcer and inflammatory bowel disease
Cirrhosis and alcoholic liver diseases
Acute and chronic renal failure
Asthma and chronic obstructive airway diseases
Pathophysiology: Unit 09
Laboratory tests for liver function tests and kidney function tests

Biopharmaceutics and pharmacokinetics+

Biopharmaceutics and pharmacokinetics: Unit 01
Bio-pharmaceutics
The fate of drug after drug absorption, various mechanisms for drug absorption, drug concentration in blood, biological factors in drug absorption, physicochemical factors, dosage form consideration for gastrointestinal absorption
Drug absorption: (a) Gastrointestinal absorption-biological considerations, (b) gastrointestinal absorption-physicochemical considerations, (c) gastrointestinal absorption-role of the dosage form, (d) pharmacokinetics
Drug absorption: (d) Compartmental and non-compartmental pharmacokinetics. Biotransformation, drug disposition-distribution, drug disposition-elimination.Variability-body weight, age, sex, and genetic factors. Pharmacokinetic variability diseases
Drug absorption: (d) Pharmacokinetic variability-drug interactions. Individualization and optimization of drug dosing regimens
Biopharmaceutics and pharmacokinetics: Unit 02
Bio-availability and bio-equivalence
Quality parameters of dosage forms
Assay methods and its validation
Physicochemical properties of drugs and added substances and its effect on preparations, and biological availability of dosage forms
Pharmaceutical properties of dosage forms, disintegration, dissolution rate
Biological, pharmacological effects of dosage forms
Factors affecting bioavailability, determination of bioavailability
Significance of bio-equivalence studies
Statistical analysis of bioequivalence studies
Development, scale up and post approval changes (SUPAC) and in vitro (dissolution) in vivo (plasma concentration profile) correlation or IV/ IV correlation (IVIVC)
Multi stage-bioequivalence studies
Therapeutic equivalence
Titration design for clinical rationales
New drug application (NDA)
Biopharmaceutics and pharmacokinetics: Unit 03
Bio-pharmaceutical statistics
Post marketing surveillance
Process validation

Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics+

Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 01
General principles
Preparation, maintenance, analysis of observational records in clinical pharmacy
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 02
Clinical trials
Type and phases of clinical trials, placebo, ethical and regulatory issues including good clinical practice in clinical trials
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 03
Therapeutic drug monitoring
Adverse drug reaction (ADR), types of ADR, mechanism of ADR
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 04
Drug interaction
Monitoring and reporting of ADR, and its significance
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 05
Drug information services
Drug interactions
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 06
Drug interaction in pediatric and geriatric patients
Drug treatment during pregnancy, lactation and menstruation
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 07
Pharmacovigilance
Therapeutic drug monitoring, neutraceuticals, essential drugs and rational drug usage
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 08
Age-related drug therapy
Concept of posology, drug therapy for neonates, pediatrics, and geriatrics
Drugs used in pregnancy and lactation
Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: Unit 09
Drug therapy
In gastrointestinal, hepatic, renal, cardiovascular, and respiratory disorders
For neurological and psychological disorders
In infections of respiratory system, urinary system, infective meningitis, TB, HIV, malaria, and filaria
For thyroid and parathyroid disorders, diabetes mellitus, menstrual cycle disorders, menopause and male sexual dysfunction
For malignant disorders like leukemia, lymphoma, and solid tumors
For rheumatic, eye, and skin disorders

Human anatomy and physiology+

Human anatomy and physiology: Unit 01
Cell physiology
Cell, cell junctions, transport mechanisms, homeostasis, ion channels, secondary messengers
Human anatomy and physiology: Unit 02
The blood
Composition and functions of blood, RBC, WBC, platelets
Homeostasis, blood groups, mechanism of clotting
Introduction to disorders of the blood
Human anatomy and physiology: Unit 03
Gastrointestinal tract
Structure of the gastrointestinal tract, functions of its different parts including those of liver, pancreas, and gallbladder, various gastrointestinal structures and their role in the digestion, and absorption of food
Human anatomy and physiology: Unit 04
Respiratory system
Structure of respiratory organs, functions of respiration mechanism and regulation of respiration, respiratory volumes and vital capacity
Human anatomy and physiology: Unit 05
Autonomic nervous system
Physiology and functions of the autonomic nervous system
Mechanism of neurohumoral transmission in ans
Human anatomy and physiology: Unit 06
Sense organs
Structure and physiology of eye (vision), ear (hearing), taste buds, nose (smell), and skin
Human anatomy and physiology: Unit 07
Skeletal system
Structure and function of the skeleton
Articulation and movement
Disorders of bones and joints
Human anatomy and physiology: Unit 08
Central nervous system
Functions of different parts of the brain and spinal cord
Neurohumoral transmission in the central nervous system, reflex action, electroencephalogram, specialized functions of the brain, cranial nerves, and their functions
Human anatomy and physiology: Unit 09
Urinary system
Various parts structure and functions of the kidney, and urinary tract
Physiology of urine formation and acid-base balance
Brief introduction to disorders of the kidney
Human anatomy and physiology: Unit 10
Endocrine glands
Basic anatomy and physiology of pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal glands and pancreas
Local hormones
A brief introduction to disorders of various endocrine glands
Human anatomy and physiology: Unit 11
Reproductive system
Structure and functions of male, and female reproductive system
Sex hormones, physiology of menstrual cycle, and various stages of pregnancy and parturition
Human anatomy and physiology: Unit 12
Cardiovascular system
Anatomy of heart and blood vessels, physiology of blood circulation, cardiac cycle, conducting system of the heart, heart sound, electrocardiogram, blood pressure, and its regulation
Human anatomy and physiology: Unit 13
Lymphatic system
Composition, formation, and circulation of lymph
Spleen and its functions

Pharmaceutical engineering+

Pharmaceutical engineering: Unit 01
Fluid flow
Type of flow, Reynolds number, viscosity, the concept of the boundary layer, basic equation of fluid flow, the study of valves, flow meters, manometers, and measurement of flow and pressure including mathematical problems
Pharmaceutical engineering: Unit 02
Heat transfer
Source of heat, mechanism of heat transfer, the laws of heat transfer, steam and electricity as heating media, determination of requirement of the amount of steam/ electrical energy, steam pressure, boiler capacity, mathematical problems on heat transfer
Steam traps and reducing valve, lagging
Pharmaceutical engineering: Unit 03
Evaporation
The basic concept of phase equilibrium, factors affecting evaporation, evaporators, film evaporators, single effect and multiple effect evaporators, mathematical problems on evaporation
Pharmaceutical engineering: Unit 04
Distillation
Raoult's law, phase diagram, volatility: Simple steam and flash distillation, principles of rectification, Mc-Cabe Thiele method for calculations of a number of theoretical plates, azeotropic, and extractive distillation
Mathematical problems on distillation
Pharmaceutical engineering: Unit 05
Drying
Moisture content and mechanism of drying, the rate of drying and time of drying calculations, classifications and types of dryers, dryers used in pharmaceutical industries and special drying methods like freeze drying, and lyophilization
Mathematical problems in drying
Pharmaceutical engineering: Unit 06
Size reduction and size separation
Definition, objectives of size reduction, factors affecting size reduction, laws governing in energy and power requirement of a mill, types of mills including ball mill, hammer mill, fluid energy mill, micronizer, Quadro co-mil, multi mill etc
Pharmaceutical engineering: Unit 07
Extraction
Theory of extraction, extraction methods, equipment for various types of the extraction process
Pharmaceutical engineering: Unit 08
Mixing
Theory of mixing, solid-solid, solid-liquid, and liquid-liquid mixing equipment
Pharmaceutical engineering: Unit 09
Crystallization
Characteristics of crystals like purity, size, shape, geometry, habit, forms, size, and factors affecting them
Solubility curves and calculation curves, and calculations of heat balance around S. Swanson's Walker crystallizer, super saturation theory and its limitations, nucleation mechanism, crystal growth, study of various types of crystallizers, tanks
Agitated batch, Swanson's Walker, single vacuums, circulating magma and crystal crystallizers, cracking of crystals and its prevention
Numerical problems on yields
Introduction to polymorphism
Pharmaceutical engineering: Unit 10
Filtration and centrifugation
Theory of filtrations, filter aids, filter media, industrial filters, including filter press, rotary filter, edge filters, filter leaf and laboratory filtration equipment etc, factors affecting filtration, mathematical problems on filtrations
Optimum cleaning cycle in batch filters
Principles of centrifugation, industrial centrifugal filters, and centrifugal sedimentars
Pharmaceutical engineering: Unit 11
Dehumidification and humidity control
Basic concept and definition, wet bulb and adiabatic saturation temperatures, psychometric count and measurement of humidity, application of humidity measurement in pharmacy, equipment for humidification and dehumidification operations
Pharmaceutical engineering: Unit 12
Refrigeration and air conditioning
Principles and applications of refrigeration, and air conditioning
Pharmaceutical engineering: Unit 13
Material of constructions
General study of composition, corrosion, resistance, properties, and applications of the materials of construction with special reference to stainless steel, glass, ferrous metals, cast iron, non ferrous metals, copper and alloys, aluminum and alloys
Lead, tin, silver, nickel, and alloys, chromium and non metals, stone, slate, brick, asbestos, plastics, rubber, timber, concrete
Corrosion and its prevention with reference to commonly used material in pharmaceutical plants
Pharmaceutical engineering: Unit 14
Automated process control systems
A process variable, temperature, pressure, flow level and vacuum, and their measurement
Elements of automatic process control and introduction to automatic process control
Elements of computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)
Pharmaceutical engineering: Unit 15
Industrial hazards and safety precautions
Mechanical, chemical, electrical, fire, dust, noise hazards, industrial dermatitis, accident, records, safety requirements/ equipment etc

Pharmaceutical management+

Pharmaceutical management: Unit 01
Introduction to management
Types of management
Basic concepts of management, management process, function, and principles
Levels of management, pharmaceutical management art, science or profession
Social responsibilities of management, functions of management
Pharmaceutical management: Unit 02
Planning and forecasting
Planning: Nature, process, and types of planning, steps in the planning process, planning premises
Advantages and limitations of planning
Management by objective, meaning, objective features, advantages and limitations
Forecasting: Meaning, nature, importance, limitations
Techniques of forecasting
Pharmaceutical management: Unit 03
Organization
Definition, nature, theories, functions, line, and staff organization concepts
Pharmaceutical management: Unit 04
Research management
R and d organizations and research categories
Elements needed for an r and d organization
Technology transfer
Pharmaceutical management: Unit 05
Inventory management
R and d organizations and research categories
Types of inventories
Requirements of effective inventory control
Pharmaceutical management: Unit 06
Communication
Nature, types of communication, process, channels, and barriers of communication
Limitations of communications
Importance in pharmaceutical industries
Pharmaceutical management: Unit 07
Marketing research
New product selection, product management, advertising
Pharmaceutical management: Unit 08
Leadership and motivation
Leadership: Meaning, nature, leadership styles
Theories of leadership
Motivation: Meaning, nature, importance
Theories of motivation
Pharmaceutical management: Unit 09
Human resource and development (HRD)
Definition, HRD methods, HRD process, HRD in Indian industry
Pharmaceutical management: Unit 10
GATT
General agreement on tariff and trade and its impact on the pharmaceutical industry
History of GATT, its impact on the pharmaceutical industry
Pharmaceutical market in
Pharmaceutical management: Unit 11
World trade organization (WTO) and trade-related intellectual property rights (TRIPS)
Introduction to wto
Types of intellectual property rights: Industrial property and copyrights Indian patent acts, 1970 with the latest amendment
Pharmaceutical management: Unit 12
World trade organization (WTO) and trade-related intellectual property rights (TRIPS)
Definition, types of patents
Pharmaceutical management: Unit 13
Standard institutions and regulatory authorities
Bureau of Indian standards (BIS)
International organization for standardization (ISO)
United states of food and drug administration (USFDA)
Central drug standard control organization (CDSCO)
International conference on harmonization (ICH)
World health organization (WHO)

Pharmaceutical jurisprudence+

Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 01
Historical background drug legislation in India, code of ethics for pharmacists
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 02
The pharmacy act 1948 (inclusive of recent amendments)
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 03
Drugs and cosmetics act 1940, rules 1945, including new drug applications
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 04
Narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances act, and rules there under
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 05
Drugs and magic remedies (objectionable advertisements) act, 1954
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 06
Medicinal and toilet preparations (excise duties) act, 1955, rules 1976
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 07
Medical termination of pregnancy act, 1970 and rules 1975
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 08
Prevention of cruelty to animals act, 1960
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 09
Drug (price control) order
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 10
Shops and establishment act
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 11
Factory act
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 12
Consumer protection act
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 13
Indian pharmaceutical industry
An overview
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 14
Industrial development and regulation act, 1951
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 15
Introduction to intellectual property rights and Indian patent act, 1970
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 16
An Introduction to standard institutions and regulatory authorities such as BIS, ASTM, ISO, TGA, USFDA, MHRA, ICH, WHO
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 17
Minimum wages act, 1948
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence: Unit 18
Prevention of food adulteration act, 1954 and rules

Dispensing and hospital pharmacy+

Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 01
Introduction to laboratory equipment
Weighing methodology, handling of prescriptions, labeling instructions for dispensed products
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 02
Posological calculations involved in the calculation of dosage for infants
Enlarging and reducing formula, displacement value
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 03
Preparations of formulations involving allegation, alcohol dilution, isotonic solution
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 04
Study of current patent and proprietary products, generic products and selected brand products, indications, contraindications, adverse drug reactions, available dosage forms and packing of
(a) Antihypertensive drug, (b) antiamoebic drugs, (c) antihistaminic drugs, (d) antiemetic drugs, (e) antacids and ulcer healing drugs, (f) antidiarrheals and laxatives, (g) respiratory drugs, (h) antibiotics, (i) analgesics and antipyretic drugs
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 05
Compounding and dispensing of following prescriptions
(a) Mixtures, (b) solutions, (c) emulsions, (d) lotions (external preparations), (e) liniments (external preparations), (f) powder, (g) granules, (h) suppositories, (i) ointments/ paste, (j) cream
(k) Incompatibility: Prescription based on physical, chemical, and therapeutic incompatibility. Tablets, (l) inhalations
Dispensing and hospital pharmacy: Unit 06
Reading and counseling of prescriptions from the clinical practice
Designing from mock pharmacy: Layout and structure of retail pharmacy, compounding, dispensing, storing, labeling, pricing, recording, and counseling of prescription
Procurement of information for the given drug for drug information services
Preparation of hospital formulary
Applications for Admissions are open.
SAGE University Bhopal M.Pharma Admissions 2022

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The National Testing Agency will release the exam pattern for GPAT along with the information bulletin. Candidates appearing for the exam are advised to know the GPAT exam pattern 2023 to get an understanding of the medium, type of questions to expect, duration of exam etc.

GPAT 2023 Exam Pattern can be checked as follows

  • Mode of examination- Computer-based online test
  • Language- English
  • Duration of examination- 3 hours
  • Type of questions- Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)
  • Total number of questions- 125
  • Marking Scheme- +4 for every correct answer, while -1 for every incorrect response
  • Maximum Marks- 500
  • Exam Time- 2:30 PM to 5:30 PM

GPAT E-books and Sample Papers

The GPAT 2023 admit card will be released in an online mode on the official website. The admit card of GPAT 2023 mentions details related to the exam, test centre, hall ticket number, the name of the candidate, etc. To download GPAT admit card candidates need to log in using their application number, date of birth, and security pin. However, before downloading the GPAT admit card 2023, candidates must check all the details printed on it. Also, candidates must remember that GPAT 2023 admit card is an important document. If a candidate fails to carry it to the examination hall, they are not allowed to appear for the GPAT.

Steps to download GPAT admit card:

  • Visit the website of NTA GPAT 2023 at gpat.nta.nic.in
  • Click on the link to 'download GPAT 2023 admit card'
  • Candidates can download it by using the application number and password or date of birth
  • Enter the login credentials and click on submit
  • The GPAT admit card appears on screen for download.

Unable to download the GPAT Admit Card?

Candidates who will be unable to download their admit cards must send an email to the official email ID provided by NTA for the cause citing their name, application number, and other details.

Documents to be carried along with GPAT admit card 2023

  • One passport size photograph - This should be the same as uploaded for the online application form and is used for pasting on the specific space in the attendance sheet at the GPAT 2023 exam centre during the exam.
  • Anyone of the photo IDs - Candidates must carry the original, valid, and non-expired photo IDs: PAN card/ Driving License/ Voter ID/ Passport/ Aadhaar Card (With photograph)/ Ration Card
  • PwD certificate issued by the Competent Authority if applicable

Things to carry at GPAT exam centre:

Amid COVID-19, NTA asks aspirants to carry the following things to the exam centre for safely.

  • Personal transparent water bottle
  • Hand sanitizer (50 ml)
  • Ballpoint pen
  • Hand gloves and mask

GPAT exam day guidelines 2023:

Here are some of the GPAT guidelines, that aspirants must follow at the centre:

  • Candidates must report to the GPAT test centre one and a half hours before the exam starts
  • They should follow the social distancing norms and maintain six feet distance
  • Face masks must be worn by students and their parents or guardians. New masks will be provided at the exam centre
  • Following the GPAT dress code, aspirants must avoid wearing shoes and footwear with thick sole
  • No electronic gadgets like mobiles, earphones, pager, calculator, pen drives, and others will be allowed to take inside the GPAT exam hall.

To know more about GPAT exam day guidelines and documents required, check the video below.


GPAT 2023 Exam Centers

StateCity
GujaratAhmedabad
Bhavnagar
Rajkot
Surat
Vadodara
Anand
Gandhinagar
Mehsana
Uttar PradeshAllahabad
Lucknow
Meerut
Bareilly
Noida
Kanpur
Varanasi
Ghaziabad
Gorakhpur
Agra
MaharashtraAmravati
Mumbai
Aurangabad
Nagpur
Nanded
Nashik
Pune
Kolhapur
Ahmednagar
Dhule
Navi Mumbai
Solapur
Thane
Tamil NaduMadurai
Chennai
Coimbatore
Tirunelveli
Tiruchirappalli
KarnatakaMangalore
Mysore
Bengaluru
Gulbarga
Belgaum
Dharwad
Udupi
DelhiNew Delhi
Madhya PradeshBhopal
Gwalior
Indore
Jabalpur
Sagar
OdishaBhubaneswar
Sambalpur
Berhampur
Ganjam
Andhra PradeshNellore
Tirupati
Vijayawada
Visakhapatnam
Kurnool
Guntur
Rajahmundry
ChandigarhChandigarh
GoaPanaji
UttarakhandDehradun
Roorkee
BiharPatna
Muzaffarpur
ChhattisgarhRaipur
Bhilai
HaryanaGurgaon
Faridabad
Hisar
Ambala
AssamGuwahati
Dibrugarh
JharkhandRanchi
Dhanbad
Jamshedpur
TelanganaHyderabad
Warangal
Karimnagar
Secunderabad
Himachal PradeshShimla
Hamirpur
Bilaspur
Solan
Jammu and KashmirSrinagar
Jammu
Leh
RajasthanJaipur
Udaipur
Jodhpur
Kota
Sikar
KeralaThiruvananthapuram
Kozhikode
Ernakulam
Kottayam
Thrissur
West BengalKolkata
Siliguri
PunjabAmritsar
Bathinda
Ludhiana
Mohali
TripuraAgartala
Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPort Blair
Arunachal PradeshItanagar
Naharlagun
LakshadweepKavaratti
ManipurImphal
MeghalayaShillong
MizoramAizawl
NagalandKohima
Dimapur
PuducherryPuducherry

Documents Required at Exam

  • GPAT admit card
  • Valid photo ID proof
  • Photograph similar to the one uploaded with the application form
  • PwD certificate if applicable

NTA releases the official GPAT answer key 2023. The GPAT 2023 answer key contains the answers to the questions asked in the exam. Using the GPAT answer key, candidates can calculate the marks to be obtained in the exam. Also, candidates will have an option to challenge GPAT official answer key 2023 by paying Rs 1000 per question in online mode. The amount paid for the challenge was refunded if the challenges will be correct. After the challenge process is over, the NTA will release the final answer key of GPAT 2023 in PDF format at nta.ac.in.

How to calculate your probable GPAT score 2023?

Use the official marking scheme of GPAT 2023 to calculate your score. According to the GPAT marking scheme, candidates will be rewarded 4 marks for every correct answer while every incorrect response deducts one mark.

GPAT score = (4 x Number of correct responses) + (1 x Number of incorrect responses)

How to challenge the GPAT answer key?

  • Candidates must login using their application number and password/ date of birth and pay a sum of Rs 1000 per question through credit/debit card/Net banking,
  • The NTA’s committee will look into the objections and release the final answer key after consideration of the same. The decision on the challenges is final and no further communication is entertained by the authorities.

317 Colleges Accepting Admission
through GPAT

Click here

The National Testing Agency will announce the GPAT result in online mode in the form of a scorecard. The GPAT result 2023 carries details such as the candidate’s rank, qualifying status and score. To check the GPAT 2023 result, candidates have to enter their email-id and password. The authorities will also release the GPAT merit list after the declaration of the result. In order to check the GPAT scorecard 2023, aspirants need to enter their registered e-mail ID and password.

Steps to check GPAT 2023 result:

  • Visit the official website gpat.nta.nic.in
  • Click on the link 'View GPAT result 2023'
  • Enter the login credentials, i.e. candidate application number and password or date of birth
  • Click on 'Sign in' and then 'View result'

The GPAT result 2023 page will show the maximum marks, candidate's NTA score and All India Rank (AIR). GPAT 2023 result is valid for a period of three years from its declaration. The GPAT scorecard is used for admissions at more than 800 institutes offering M.Pharm courses across the country.

GPAT cutoff is taken as the screening process for admission to various Master of Pharmacy (M.Pharmacy) programmes. NTA, i.e. the conducting body determines the cutoff of GPAT 2023 which is the minimum qualifying score required for admissions. Various factors like availability of seats, the difficulty level of exam, number of candidates applied for etc are considered while determining the GPAT cutoff.

GPAT cutoff 2021, 2020, 2019

Category
2021 cutoffTotal candidates2020
Total candidates
2019
Total number of candidates
General
359-1861782163
1974
141
1952
OBC-NCL
185-1521179131
1350
117
1103
SC
185-114688103
727
95
626
ST
183-8734076
373
74
313
EWS
185-155458104
489
--
--

GPAT Cutoff Trends

Category

2018

2017

2016

2015

2014

2013

General and OBC

115

113

115

125

125

145

Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe

90

82

90

100

100

100

Physically Handicapped

90

82

90

100

100

100


Mode of Counselling: Online, Offline

NTA does not conduct the counselling for GPAT. Individual participating institutes conduct the counselling based on the GPAT score. Qualified candidates have to register with the institutes for the GPAT 2023 counselling procedure separately. The counselling schedule is then released by the GPAT participating institutes separately. More than 800 institutes offer admissions to the masters in Pharmacy programmes in the country on the basis of GPAT 2023 scores.

Documents required for GPAT Counselling 2023:

  • GPAT Counselling letter (original)

  • GPAT admit card (original)

  • GPAT rank card

  • 10th class marksheet (original)

  • 12th class marksheet (original)

  • Graduation certificate (original/ provisional)

  • Character certificate (original)

  • Category certificate (if applicable)

  • Latest passport size photographs

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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Question:What is GPAT exam 2023 conducted for?

Answer:

The Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test (GPAT) is conducted for M. Pharm admissions across various participating institutes of India.

Question:Which Institutes accept GPAT score?

Answer:

There are more than 800 participating institutes that accept GPAT score.

Question:Can I take the GPAT test from any computer?

Answer:

No. A candidate has to take the test on a pre-assigned computer at the test venue as contained in the GPAT admit card.

Question:Can I apply for change of exam centre after release of GPAT admit card?

Answer:

No, candidates are not allowed to make any changes once the application form is saved.

Question:What is the duration of GPAT 2023?

Answer:

The GPAT exam is of 3 hours time duration.

Question:What is the important details requires for GPAT 2022 registration?

Answer:

GPAT 2022 registration requires the aspirants to provide basic details like name, father's name, etc. A unique application number is generated during the time of GPAT registration which has to be noted.

Question:Has GPAT application form 2022 been released?

Answer:

The application form for GPAT 2022 has been released on the official website.

Question:What is GPAT 2022 exam date?

Answer:

As per the official notice, GPAT exam date is April 9, 2022, from 9:00 AM to 12:00 noon.

Questions related to GPAT

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Showing 429 out of 429 Questions
9 Views

i am qualified in gpat 2022 and i got 5190 rank can i get seat in pharmaceutical analysis , i am sc category

Shreya Mukherjee 2nd Aug, 2022

Dear aspirant,

Congratulations on your GPAT qualification. Being SC candidate you can get seat in government colleges that accept GPAT score.

Many colleges have closed their applications. Try for DIPSAR and Jadavpur University.

Here is a list of the colleges that accept GPAT score:

https://pharmacy.careers360.com/colleges/list-of-pharmacy-colleges-in-india-accepting-gpat


I hope this helps!

5 Views

i got 5190 rank in gpat 2022 can i get seat in m.pharm course and i am belonging to sc category

Shreya Mukherjee 2nd Aug, 2022

Dear aspirant,

Congratulations on your GPAT qualification. Being SC candidate you can get seat in government colleges that accept GPAT score.

Many colleges have closed their applications. Try for DIPSAR and Jadavpur University.

Here is a list of the colleges that accept GPAT score:

https://pharmacy.careers360.com/colleges/list-of-pharmacy-colleges-in-india-accepting-gpat


I hope this helps!

7 Views

i didnt registerd the bits admission form but i want to admission in bits throug gpat rant my rank is 629 can i apply bits admission 2nd phase directly

Kushagra Singh 4th Aug, 2022

Hi,

GPAT is a Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test is a national level test for admission in Post Graduation program in pharmacy.

For the eligibility criteria, one should have completed undergraduate course in pharmacy which is of four years of duration.

The cut-off for GPAT in general category used to be about 185 to 190 (from past trends).

Yes, Birla institute of technology offers admission through GPAT, so if you qualify the current cutoff and all minimum criteria of admission, you can apply and have a great chance of admission.

Yes, you can freshly apply directly in second round.

All the best.

87 Views

I am 21 y.o. student just completed my bachelors in Pharmacy from Bhopal. I have given GPAT, CMAT and NIPER entrance exam. I want to pursue Pharmaceutical MBA course. What college would you suggest me?

Sree Student Expert 22nd Jun, 2022

Hi aspirant,

I'm providing information about MBA in Pharmaceutical course Colleges in India.

School of Business Management SVKM's Narsee Monjee Institute of Management Studies, Mumbai

Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, New Delhi

NIPER Mohali - National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research SAS Nagar

Faculty of Pharmacy MS Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences, Bangalore

University Institute of Applied Management Sciences, Chandigarh

Centre for Management Studies and Research, Ganpat University, Mehsana

NIPER Hyderabad - National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research

PUMBA Pune - Department of Management Sciences Savitribai Phule Pune University

NIPER Ahmedabad - National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research

To get more information about MBA in Pharmaceutical Colleges in India, go through below mentioned link.

https://bschool.careers360.com/colleges/list-of-mba-in-pharmaceutical-management-colleges-in-india

May this information was helpful to you.

Good Luck!!

44 Views

can I do combined mpharm and PhD in pharmacy after b pharm and I got gpat

Shilu Singha 20th Jun, 2022

Hello!

No, you cannot pursue M.Pharm and PhD in Pharmacy together. The minimun eligibility of doing PhD in any discipline is completion of the Masters degree with 55%-60%. And it is same in Pharmacy too.

Moreover, there are some universities which prefers candidates with NET, JRF for admission into PhD degree. One has to clear NIPER JEE or CSIR UGC-NET if one wants to do research depending on the eligibility criteria of the university.

If you need further information regarding admission in pharmacy, please go through this link https://www.careers360.com/courses/pharmacy-course#:~:text=Doctorate%20Level,UGC%20NET%20is%2028%20years.

Hope this will help you a bit.

Good luck for your future endeavors!

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